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to 1944 in the remote mountainous village of Yan’an in Shaanxi Province, where the CCP was based from 1936 to 1948 as it continued its armed struggle against the Chinese government then under the Kuomintang. The result crystallised into what was believed to be an unadulterated form of MarxistLeninism, more commonly known as Maoism in the West. Mao’s outstretched left arm with his palm facing outward functions like a beacon. Though it has been argued that any form of religious iconography is downplayed during the art produced in this period, one would be hard

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Representations of Marseille

the embodiment of the city and as upstanding as the city’s most famous religious landmark. Therefore, because he acts as symbolic watchman of the city and is the only character who manages to transgress social class segregations, Abder’s death is all the more foreboding for Marseille’s future. Despite earlier precedents –  such as the end of Dernier été (1981) and the film Dieu vomit les tièdes (1991) – La Ville est tranquille stands out as Guédiguian’s bleakest film to date. Marseille, on the eve of the millennium, is pictured here as teetering on apocalypse. Life

in Representing ethnicity in contemporary French visual culture
Oltreuomo/oltredonna

2 Heroes/heroines of Futurist culture: oltreuomo/oltredonna Jennifer Griffiths Jennifer Griffiths Heroes/heroines of Futurist culture Futurism was born in an atmosphere of Hegelian idealism and Bergsonian pragmatism when philosophers and thinkers were refuting notions of objective removal from political or social affairs and insisting instead upon the importance of engagement. Like Giovanni Gentile’s ‘Actual Idealism’, Marinetti’s Futurism declared any philosopher, writer or artist isolated from life to be culturally bankrupt. Futurism’s assertion about the

in Back to the Futurists
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, religious and social opposition in Russia was recognized as a symptom of moral illness, confusing religious theory with medical and social science.84 Kaun sees a Nietzschean subtext in the story, that faith is the enemy of reason: ‘Faith keeps the unfortunates in obedience and submission, by justifying the unjustifiable, by lulling discontent to sleep with the aid of such narcotic illusions as sin and penalty, virtue and reward, God and future life.’85 Woodward views ‘The Life of Vasilii Fiveiskii’ in parallel with ‘The Thought’ – the latter is about a struggle with

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle
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expression over & over again. [F]or the purposes of sale[,] repetition will not do.’25 Cameron’s religious subjects are examined in detail in Chapter 2, but it is important to point out here how each of these titles bears multiple textual and pictorial references, making them as much specific subjects of the Old Testament (The Shunamite Woman, 2 Kings 4) and the New Testament (Shepherds Keeping Watch, Luke 2:8), as generalized emblems of family-centred Victorian domestic life and embodiments of motherly love and tenderness (Prayer and Praise; Devotion), or personifications

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’

War, violence and divided societies Introduction War, violence and conflict necessarily provide the most extreme occasions for violations of human rights. The world wars of the twentieth century were the most destructive of human life and, in the case of the second world war, of human property, in recorded history. In Asia, the end of that war is also associated with struggles to achieve independence after what had been, in some cases, several centuries of colonial control. Though in most cases this was achieved fairly rapidly, that was not the end of the

in Art and human rights

respect to his Seven Up participants – that the twenty-year age gap between him and his subject is more apparent at this point of a long doc’s development than later when subjects were more disposed to treat the filmmaker as an equal (see Junge, 2004: 51). She voiced this sentiment at the film premiere of I’ll Show You My Life in 1997. One of the consequences of her father’s religious convictions is that Marieluise does not participate in the Jugendweihe ceremony which most of the other children attended. Junge devotes considerable time in his first post-Wende film

in Taking the long view

Babylon, Nineveh, Rome and the mysteries of modern metropolitan life.’126 Babylon was certainly chosen by Andreev for its symbolic representation of deviance (both biblical and scientific), which makes the contrast with the serene conditions in the insane asylum all the more compelling. In the asylum, there is a different set of religious references. Pomerantsev has a relationship with St Nicholas, who is one of the most revered Russian Orthodox saints and, among other things, is known for his defense of the falsely accused. In the final chapter, St Nicholas appears

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle
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Antonio Turok’s photographs of the Zapatistas

endlessly on various websites, including that of the Zapatistas. The photographs constitute the core of a photobook entitled Chiapas: The End of Silence, a collection of photographs taken in Chiapas, Mexico from 1973 to 1994. The photographs included in the book capture the indigenous people’s everyday lives, their rituals, religious processions, fiestas and carnival dances. The format of the book, typical of many documentary photobooks, contains three parts: the introductory part consists of two essays by Francisco Álvarez Quiñones and Antonio Turok, the main body, which

in Photography and social movements

Nightmares of Life: A Critical-psychological Study about L. Andreev, Pshebyshevskii and Other Contemporary Writers, in which she called Andreev a sick talent. ‘If he is not mentally ill, then by all means he possesses a sick psyche/soul.’ 74 Kube, however, is light on psychological theory in discussing Andreev’s play Life of Man. Striking a more religious than scientific tone she states that Andreev’s continual question ‘Why do I live?’ should be reframed as ‘How should I live?’ Kube’s interpretation of the Russian word dukhovnii, which has both the meaning spiritual and

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle