The marvelous Priviledge of Brytish Impire … wealth and strength, foreign love and feare, and triumphant fame, the whole world over.
John Dee, 1577 1
This chapter examines the role of archaeology in the study of the Elizabethan colonization of southern Ireland. Initial foreign settlement by early modern European states, or by their authorized commercial organizations, are usefully characterized as the ‘proto-colonial phase’ of the epoch of modern colonial imperialism. For European
political and social changes in the last generations of Irish autonomy. It analyzes architectural types and techniques associated with the late Elizabethan colonization of Munster, which may be applicable to early modern Ireland in general. The chapter concludes with a study of the tower-house, which was used widely by both Irish aristocracy and English colonial landowners. A key period in Irish history, the reign of Elizabeth began with a medieval, semi-feudal society and ended with a central state authority and displaced populations.
the archaeological evidence that was left behind.
Who was Sir John Clopton?
When Sir Edward Walker died in
1677, New Place and his other estates were left to his daughter Barbara.
Her marriage to Sir John Clopton, in 1662, helped to revive his
family’s fortunes. The knighthood of Sir John Clopton, which
occurred in the same year as his marriage, was probably a result of his
life. Art, as Shakespeare bodies it forth
on stage in this scene, can be life-giving, as well as socially
Representations of classical figures were also popular in
long galleries. A picture of Cleopatra hung in the Long Gallery at
Ingatestone Hall in Essex (where the King’s Men performed), along
with ‘a picture of Diana, two pictures of a turk (one male and one
Alas all the Castles I have, are built with ayre, thou know’st.
Ben Jonson, 1605 1
Ben Jonson’s comedy Eastward Ho reveals how the early seventeenth century still valued castles as important social possessions. The claim by an impecunious Sir Petronell to have a castle and estate, more than his title, attracted the social-climbing daughter of the rich goldsmith Touchstone. For purely military purposes, castles had become obsolete with successful French siege artillery in Normandy and
different sorts of performative manifestations, and
by contemplating ( theor-ising ) them, portrays the multiplicity of
forms and shapes theatre could assume, before later eras
compartmentalised and institutionalised them within specific, fixed
architectural and social spaces.
Nonetheless, our inclusive notion of theatre is narrowed
down by a specific agenda: we study theatre as a connective instrument
Lincolnshire. This was a modest increase on what his father and namesake
left him in 1507, but included a jointure to his mother Amy (d. after 1527),
who was remarried.2 It was enough to ensure the family’s social position
within the parish but not John’s own appointment as justice of the peace (JP),
with the wider recognition of gentle status that this guaranteed. It was also
enough to let him make minor renovations to the Hall in the early 1520s.3
When he died in late January 1528, even though he had employed feoffees
to use in an effort to avoid it, all his land held by
Among the ‘small
finds’ unearthed in the Museum of London’s
archaeological excavations of the sites upon which early modern
English playhouses once stood – theatrical ephemera including
fragile filaments of costume-wire, bits of lace and fringe, bent
dress-pins, tiny glass beads, scattered hooks, buttons and buckles,
shards of ceramic tobacco
result, ‘dressing and undressing were social processes that
required … other pairs of hands’. 67 The construction of the spectator
as a participant in visual and material culture in Henry V
therefore draws on processes which would have been familiar to playgoers
from the experience of piecing together their own visual appearance, or
helping to compose the dress of relatives, friends, masters, mistresses
Raleigh’s ‘Ocean to Scinthia’, Spenser’s ‘Colin Clouts Come Home Againe’ and The Faerie Queene IV.vii in colonial context
Raleigh’s estates in east Cork (Colin Rynne, ‘The SocialArchaeology of
‘Ocean to Scinthia’, ‘strange’ colonial Ireland, like the poem’s ‘new worlds’,
does not function merely as an anecdotal backdrop but rather as a fundamental part of its imperial, Petrarchan conceit: like the Queen herself, the
country fuels the driving erotic energy of Raleigh’s despairing art.
V. Love, war and riches
Of the imperial conceits in ‘Ocean’, some refer explicitly to ‘new worlds’
and colonial opportunity there. But