Margin (Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1963).
8 Lawrence D. Kessler, The Jiangyin Mission Station: An AmericanMissionary Community in China, 1895–1951 (Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).
9 The film was called 55 Days at Peking and starred Charlton Heston, Ava Gardner and David Niven.
10 Mary Hooker, Behind the Scenes in Peking (London: John Murray, 1910), pp. 38–39.
11 Oberlin College is a small liberal arts college in Ohio, USA; the Shanxi Memorial Arch on campus serves as a reminder of this episode of history
referred to as the “Princess of Hill stations” and is
a popular tourist destination…
Being one of the most well known hill stations of India, the sylvan beauty on
the upper palani hills lines its south near Madurai in Tamil Nadu. With its rocks,
woods, lovely lake and bracing air, Kodaikanal is an ideal hill resort…1
The picture looked just like the old postcard Rachel still had in her desk.2
She scrolled down and found:
Kodai is situated at an altitude of about 2,133-m high … Established in the year
1845, Kodaikanal then saw settlement by American
work on the evangelical
enterprise in central India underscores that Americanmissionaries in
the region borrowed from the governmental modalities and cartographic
practices of Her Majesty’s imperial administration in order to
elaborate a rather distinct vision and practice, space and time, of
“the Empire of Christ.” 12 Finally, K. Sivaramakrishnan’s study
of the construal of the colonial state, the
Africa generally engage in social purity politics, as some of their
colleagues did elsewhere. For example, whereas many Wesleyan Methodists in England and
Australia supported purity campaigns, 10
their counterparts in Africa concentrated on what they regarded as more fundamental projects,
concerned with basic evangelism, education and cultural reform – attempting to divert
Africans from many of their traditional pratices and customary ‘vices’. 11 English and Americanmissionaries and
temperance activists visited from time to
The return migration of the Fellowship of the Maple Leaf
Marilyn J. Barber
of church congregations and home mission
supporters. 6 Nor was Canada excluded
from British missionary endeavour, even in the inter-war years when both religious and
imperial commitments were declining. At the same time as Canadian Protestant churches
participated in the Anglo-Americanmissionary effort by sending missionaries to Asia, British
missionaries of the Church of England were moving back and forth between the United Kingdom
and western Canada. 7 These Church of
England workers should be considered not as
Domestic tension and political antagonism in the home, 1910s–1930s
Southern African Studies , 27: 3 (2001), p. 460; Vincente L.
Rafael, ‘Colonial Domesticity: White Women and United States
Rule in the Philippines’, American Literature , 67: 4
(1995), p. 642; Stoler, Carnal Knowledge , p. 33; Patricia
Grimshaw, Paths of Duty: AmericanMissionary Wives in
Nineteenth-Century Hawaii (Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Press, 1989), p. xii; Janice
clashed in public debate with
Denis Kearney, an Irish American leader of the anti-Chinese movement.
Born in China, Wong lived with an Americanmissionary family from a
young age and became a Christian. When he moved to the United States,
his Christian faith was gradually eroded. He attended the National Liberal
The wise men of the East
League convention, organized by the leading American freethinker Robert
Ingersoll, in 1879. It is possible that Wong met Ingersoll there, since Wong
raved about the convention in a subsequent interview and said Ingersoll
The iconography of Anglo-American inter-imperialism
, and professionals overseas took form within the British Empire. Under the protection of the Pax Britannica they could take advantage of British transportation and communication networks; join the social institutions established by British settler colonists; and acquire first-hand knowledge of investment opportunities.
In part, this was a form of imperial competition; as US businesses competed for British contracts and Americanmissionaries often hoped to extend American standards to other Anglo-Saxons in
Elizabeth Underwood, Challenged Identities.
North AmericanMissionaries in Korea, 1884–
1934 , Seoul, 2003.
CARE, Box 1170, MECM, April 9, 1947; CARE, Box
944, undated, Douglas MacArthur to Paul French.
CARE, Box 2, Bloomstein manuscript, draft
, Champions of Charity ( Boulder : Westview Press , 1996 ), pp. 40 – 3 . This debate continues today; see, for example, L. Polman , War Games: The Story of Aid and War in Modern Times ( London : Viking , 2011 ).
14 North China Herald (7 December 1894), p. 931.
15 North China Herald (22 March 1895), p. 445.
16 V. P. Suvoong, ‘Medicine in China’, China Medical Missionary Journal , 8:4 (December 1894), 192–9 (p. 199).
17 Atterbury, ‘Red Cross Work in Tientsin’, p. 214; H. Corbett, ‘China’s Claim upon the Church in America’, Missionary Review of the World