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Kimberly Lamm

Infinity 6” Square 1968. Private Collection, USA. © Adrian Piper Research Archive Foundation Berlin. ‘This square should be read as a whole; or these two vertical rectangles should be read from left to right or right to left …’ 39 1.3  40 Writing the ‘I’ otherwise art, substituted lyric subjectivity for deskilled austerity, and took up procedures that highlight language as an orderly system that can quickly become chaotic and strange. Piper would soon turn away from the detachment and abstraction of Here and Now and Concrete Infinity 6” Square and would begin to

in Addressing the other woman
Sruti Bala

in. Thus, even within the economic logic, a very narrow understanding of ‘more is better’, underwritten by governmental policies of austerity and privatization, remains largely unquestioned (Fotiadi, 2017). Economic understandings of impact thus assume far more policy-related influence and importance than other, less utilitarian and more interpretive, subjective approaches. The political philosopher Wendy Brown argues that neoliberalism is ‘an order of rationality’, i.e. not only a set of economic policies or an ideology, but also a political imaginary, an order of

in The gestures of participatory art
Helena Chance

for factory buildings 1.2  A huge statue of Neptune, partly constructed from waste from William Champion’s factory in the middle of the eighteenth century, still looms over the grounds of his house. 18 The factory in a garden ranged from the austerity of prisons and orphanages, often similar in terms of organisation and management,7 to the landed estate or royal palace, but all these models communicated a clear message to the workforce that they were establishments that employed strict rules and hierarchies.8 Between 1780 and 1850, when factories in Britain were

in The factory in a garden
Jacopo Galimberti

trade unions. 11 214 11.1  Art, Global Maoism and the Cultural Revolution La Rivoluzione (February 1977), 1 Maoism, Dadaism and Mao-Dadaism The text praised the workers’ ‘sacrifices’ which had been necessitated by the post-oil-crisis phase that was marked by austerity and unemployment in Italy. The manifesto went on to make a dramatic plea for hard work and religion as panacea for ‘the evils’ affecting ‘the youth’, notably ‘drugs’ and ‘pederasty’. In the articles of political analysis the fanzine departed from this parodist tone. It emphasised the hallucinatory

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Form and function
Richard Kilborn

suggested, projects which start life with a distinct sociological orientation have a habit of slowly transmuting into works with a far more biographical inclination. Take Seven Up, for instance, which began life as a World in Action special. The programme was transmitted in 1964 at a time when Britain was slowly moving out of the period of post-war austerity. One of the primary remits of this programme was to consider whether, as some claimed, Britain was still an essentially a classridden society. (The choice of Seven Up subjects was partly determined by a desire to show

in Taking the long view
Abstract only
Lez Cooke

Liverpool accents, perhaps because its focus was on a middle-class family, rather than a working-class one, Sam was replete with Yorkshire accents and dialect, arguably the primary signifier of ‘regionality’ in the serial. Visually, the production combined studio interiors, showing the austerity and poverty in which the villagers lived, with filmed exterior scenes, enabling the iconography of the Yorkshire mining village and surrounding landscapes to be shown. Michael Cox was the producer on Sam and describes how the serial was made on the same traditional production

in A sense of place
Kimberley Skelton

never be sure what might happen at one’s feet or where one should walk, and one’s uncertainty was increased by the suddenness of the shift to a barren landscape; one was unprepared for this new environment and so had to readjust one’s expectations swiftly. Viewers, Evelyn observed, were ‘unexpectedly surprised with the … horror and confusion’.60 They experienced sharp and unsettling emotions, extreme ‘horror’ at the unpredictable dangers around them and bewildering ‘confusion’ at the austerity that had so swiftly enveloped them. With this ‘horror and confusion

in The paradox of body, building and motion in seventeenth-century England
The naked and the clothed
Niharika Dinkar

many reproductions of a pivotal scene from the narrative of Nala and Damayanti convey the indignity associated with Erotics of the body politic Calcutta Art Studio, ‘Nala and Damayanti’, c. 1895 nakedness through the male body.29 While the male nude body carried connotations of austerity and purity in courtly culture, when it was associated with the figure of the ascetic and his renunciation of the world, the naked body shorn of its habiliments served as a powerful symbol of loss.30 The tale tells the woes of two lovers who were exiled because of Kali’s wrath

in Empires of light
Ory Bartal

inundated by a wide variety of commodities. After years of austerity and saving, the younger generation that had not experienced the trauma of war and the hard work of rebuilding the nation could join the ‘bubble party’. Japan stood out as having a fast-paced curve for changes in consumption behaviour. During this time, the term ‘economic animals’ ceased to be associated with accelerated production, coming instead to refer to the ever-increasing consumption of quality products and brand names.30 This massive middle-class spending pattern, created in large part by generous

in Critical design in Japan
Abstract only
Regina Lee Blaszczyk

by measures implemented by the British government to conserve raw materials for the national defence. Food rationing is most often remembered, but austerity measures extended to necessities such as petrol, furnishings and clothing. Two government policies had a direct impact on woollen cloth manufacturers: the Consumer Rationing Scheme and the Utility Scheme. Announced by Oliver Lyttelton on behalf of the Board of Trade on 1 June 1941, the Consumer Rationing Scheme for clothing was in effect until March 1949. Like other parts of the rationing scheme, it

in Fashionability