Abstract only
Growth with decline

6 The turning point: growth with decline In 1900 local government appeared to have a clear purpose within the Constitution along with resources and prestige much greater than had been the case fifty years previously. The Acts of 1888, 1894 and 1899 for England and Wales and parallel legislation for Scotland provided a platform to vest responsibility for delivering a wide range of public services in multi-purpose local authorities. During the first decades of the twentieth century local governments gained many new services as both Liberals and Conservatives

in Explaining local government

2 The impact of industrialisation The political crisis that led up to the 1832 Electoral Reform Act is seen as a near-bloodless revolution that levered the landed elites from power in favour of urban merchants and industrialists, and, in the context of local government, led to the 1834 Poor Law Reform and the 1835 Municipal Corporations Acts that began the modernisation of the system.1 While the 1832 crisis precipitated these major reforms, they were not a radical break with the past. Poor Law unions, improvement commissions and Peel’s ideas on police and

in Explaining local government

10 Professionalism and alienation The 1972 Local Government Act and its Scottish counterpart were the culmination of continuous pressures throughout the twentieth century for change in terms both of the size of local authorities and of their inclusivity and professionalism. These changes had been envisaged by leading academic writers such as Cole since the 1920s and, later, Robson and Chester, and were grist to the mill for many reform-minded New Liberal and Labour politicians. While suspicious of the larger Labour-controlled municipal and county boroughs, many

in Explaining local government

10 Big government and self-government, 1940–69 Because it has become a truism it is not necessarily untrue. The evacuation from May 1940 of much of the civilian population from Gibraltar, and especially some of their uncomfortable experiences in Britain and Northern Ireland, did embitter the exiles and those still resident in Gibraltar and did provoke demands for political change.1 The apparently tardy steps being taken by the British authorities to organise repatriation seemed to expose the limited political influence that Gibraltar civilians had over their own

in Community and identity

7 Independents and government Introduction In almost all democracies, parliamentary government is party government. This is also the case in Ireland, but it comes with a slight twist in that historically many of these party governments have relied on parliamentarians outside of parties – that is, independent TDs – who frequently hold the balance of power in the Dáil. This gives independents what Sartori (2005) defines as ‘relevance’, whether of the coalition (that is, they are needed to form a government) or blackmail (they can prevent government formation

in Independents in Irish party democracy
Reflecting a nation’s past or merely an administrative convenience?

Introduction In Britain central government decides the shape, population, responsibilities, powers and functions of councils in England. It is central government which can, and does, abolish councils, or entire layers of local government which lacks even the most basic constitutional protection, including the right to continued existence. While

in These Englands

Vic04 10/15/03 2:10 PM Page 80 Chapter 4 The Labour minority governments The Labour Party saw an improvement in its electoral fortunes in the immediate post-war period. At the 1918 election Labour gained 22 per cent of the vote, a tremendous increase from 7 per cent at the last election held in 1910.1 During the war both the trade union and the Labour Party membership had doubled, and working-class militancy had increased in the first few years of peace.2 With the concomitant increase in class-consciousness, the working class now identified far more

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Open Access (free)

Vic07 10/15/03 2:11 PM Page 159 Chapter 7 The Attlee governments The election of a majority Labour government in 1945 generated great excitement on the left. Hugh Dalton described how ‘That first sensation, tingling and triumphant, was of a new society to be built. There was exhilaration among us, joy and hope, determination and confidence. We felt exalted, dedication, walking on air, walking with destiny.’1 Dalton followed this by aiding Herbert Morrison in an attempt to replace Attlee as leader of the PLP.2 This was foiled by the bulky protection of Bevin

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1

persuasion would each play a vital part. These concerns were not confined to the subcontinent. Public opinion played a crucial part in all the theatres of war. Waged in the context of a mass media, it was a ‘total’ war fought simultaneously on military, economic and ideological fronts. These years witnessed the birth of official propaganda in Britain. The government discerned the

in Reporting the Raj
C. E. Beneš

Here follows part six , which discusses the secular government of the city of Genoa. This part has three chapters: the first recounts how the city of Genoa has been governed by a variety of regimes. The second explains that it is safer to be ruled by one than by the many , unless that many is united for good. The third details the danger that arises

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa