the town of
Reading. While Mitford’s initial tour takes the reader in a geographical
straight line along the through road, Franco Moretti has shown in his
analysis of the spatial patterns of Our Village that the volume symbolically
organises space into what he terms ‘a little solar system’ of ‘concentric
rings’ as Mitford describes people, places and events within the village
and at distances of one to three kilometres around it.34 Moretti suggests
that in doing so she counters the linear orientation of the road that runs
through Three Mile Cross as well as the
In Atlas of the European Novel 1800–1900, Franco Moretti claims that
‘[p]lacing a literary phenomenon in its specific space – mapping it – is not
the conclusion of geographical work; it’s the beginning’.6 Much the same may
also be said of popular music. To avoid the repetition of historical narratives
about The Smiths and Manchester that remain static and one-dimensional,
more dynamic models of historical analysis need to be proposed. One reason
for this is that the meaning of a cultural phenomenon never stays the same.
The significance of a musical star image
such work has more or less explicitly participated in the project of (in
Franco Moretti’s words) ‘a history of literature
[rewriting] itself as a sociology of symbolic forms, a history of
cultural conventions’ hoping to thus ‘finally find a role
and a dignity in the context of a total history of
society.’ 18 Book history has long been recognized as having a
an entire society should stand around engrossed, reading
Dracula while up to our jugulars in blood’. 37 The implication that
the Gothic could be an escapist distraction from reality aligns with
Franco Moretti’s argument that Gothic metaphors filter social
threats and anxieties, dislocating ‘the antagonisms and
horrors evidenced within society to outside society itself
-Pierre Kalfon, as well as Michèle
Moretti, with whom Téchiné was to have a long professional relation4 Rereleased in 2004. Marc’O, born in 1927 as Marc-Gilbert Guillaumin, has
from the 1990s to the present been artistic director of the radical theatre group
Génération Chaos and their magazine Les Périphériques vous parlent. His other
ﬁlms include the avant-garde 60 Minutes de la vie intérieure d’un homme/Closed
Vision, presented at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival by Jean Cocteau.
ship). André Téchiné was assistant director on this ﬁlm, which was
edited by Jean
, ‘Close but not Deep: Literary Ethics and the Descriptive Turn’, New
Literary History 41 (2010): 371–91; Sharon Marcus, Heather Love, and Stephen
Best, ‘Building a Better Description’, Representations 135/1 (2016): 1–21. In relation to description, one could also include Franco Moretti’s recent work on ‘distant reading’, which also turns away from humanistic or hermeneutical readings
of individual texts, focusing instead on large data sets that combine scientific and
scientific methodologies to identify systematic patterns in literary texts
across time and
. In his challenge to the monarchy's claims of transcendent power, Greville participates in what Franco Moretti has highlighted as Jacobean tragedy's ability to ‘deconsecrate’ sovereign power and disentitle ‘the absolute monarch to all ethical and rational legitimation’. 40 As Moretti goes on to point out, ‘Power is founded in a transcendent design, in an intentional and significant order. Accordingly, political relations have the right to exist only in so far as they reproduce that order symbolically … absolute monarchy can exist because it has a meaning’. 41
, where Exxon (which is, as Sinclair explains in the London Orbital film, the company of US President George W. Bush) has its storage tanks. The economic logic of vampirism as mapped onto contemporary capital. Although I have elsewhere suggested that Sinclair’s mode of critique gestures towards the transcendent rather than being strictly materialist (or Marxian), the connection between Marx and vampirism occurs even in Das Kapital . Franco Moretti, in Signs Taken for Wonders , notes that vampirism is a ‘metaphor for capital’ in Stoker’s Dracula . According to Marx
Revisiting the cultural significance of the white cliffs of Dover
geographical feature that necessarily creates division and opposition, a view that still dominates public discourse.
3 The living conditions for migrants in the area worsened after the closing of the Sangatte refugee centre in 2002. As an increasing number of people arrived in Calais in the wake of the 2015 so-called ‘European refugee crisis’, the term ‘Jungle’ became widely used in the media. The French government had the camp cleared in October 2016.
4 The Poke (2015).
5 See for example Howkins ( 2014 ).
6 As Franco Moretti has shown by mapping the invaders
of alternative generic mappings? One possibility is that online communities may jam the film industry’s powerful discursive machinery and generate new perspectives on the work.
Genres and history
The iconoclastic literary scholar Franco Moretti offers another suggestive metaphor for genres. They are, he says with reference to the Roman god of doorways, ‘Janus-like creatures, with one face turned to history and the other to form’ ( 2005 : 14). Yet even to phrase the matter like this is to introduce a false dichotomy between form and