Between 1921 and 1965, Irish and Scottish migrants continued to seek new homes abroad. This book examines the experience of migration and settlement in North America and Australasia. It goes beyond traditional transnational and diasporic approaches, usually focused on two countries, and considers a range of destinations in which two migrant groups settled. The book aims to reclaim individual memory from within the broad field of collective memory to obtain 'glimpses into the lived interior of the migration processes'. The propaganda relating to emigration emanating from both Ireland and Scotland posited emigration as draining the life-blood of these societies. It then discusses the creation of collective experiences from a range of diverse stories, particularly in relation to the shared experiences of organising the passage, undertaking the voyage out, and arriving at Ellis Island. The depiction at the Ellis Island Museum is a positive memory formation, emphasising the fortitude of migrants. Aware that past recollections are often shaped by contemporary concerns, these memories are also analysed within the broader context in which remembering takes place. The book then examines migrant encounters with new realities in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada. The formal nature of ethnic and national identities for Irish and Scottish migrants, as exhibited by language, customs, and stereotypes, is also explored. The novelty of alleged Irish and Scottish characteristics emphasised in accounts presumably goes some way to explaining the continued interest among the children of migrants. These ongoing transnational connections also proved vital when migrants considered returning home.
The Colonial Police Service was created in 1936 in order to standardise all imperial police forces and mould colonial policing to the British model. This book is the first comprehensive study of the colonial police and their complex role within Britain's long and turbulent process of decolonisation, a time characterised by political upheaval and colonial conflict. The emphasis is on policing conflict rather than the application of British law and crime-fighting in an imperial context. The overlapping between the Irish-colonial and Metropolitan-English policing models was noticeable throughout the British Empire. The policing of Canada where English and Irish styles of policing intermingled, in particular after 1867 when Canada became a nation in its own right with the passage of the British North America Act. Inadequate provisions for the localisation of gazetted officers within most colonies prior to independence led to many expatriates being asked to remain in situ. Post-war reform included the development of police special branches, responsible for both internal and external security. From the British Caribbean to the Middle East, the Mediterranean to British Colonial Africa and on to Southeast Asia, colonial police forces struggled with the unrest and conflict that stemmed from Britain's withdrawal from its empire. A considerable number of them never returned to Britain, settling predominantly in Kenya, South Africa, Australia and Canada. Policing the immediate postcolonial state relied on traditional colonial methods. The case of the Sierra Leone Police is revealing in a contemporary context.
King’s short story highlights the relationship between citizenship, the state, and national borders, and, in particular, emphasises
the erosion of Indigenous rights and sovereignty as they play out at
NorthAmerican borders, as suggested by one reporter who earnestly (but ignorantly) asks the young narrator ‘how it [feels] to be an
Indian without a country’ (p. 142). The mother’s refusal to acknowledge any ‘side’ of the border undermines and ultimately rejects the
idea that her citizenship can be bounded by either a figurative or literal modern nation state
John Izod, Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan and Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard
paranoid doubts evaporated and (as usual) gave way to enthusiastic
commitment. In late April, early May 1973, prior to its release in Britain,
he submitted to numerous interviews with press journalists and recorded
others for radio and television. 62 Later he, McDowell and Price flew to New York to repeat the
exercise with the NorthAmerican press. The most thorough and insightful of
these interviews (such as Robinson’s for The Times 63 and Rex Reed
; but in 1820 the United Kingdom was
close, uncomfortably so, to the revolutionary mood of the continent.
1 Fred Donnelly, ‘A Cato Street Conspirator in NorthAmerica’, Labour History Review,
78:1 (2013), 127–30.
2 M. Chase, ‘The People’s Farm’: English Radical Agrarianism, 1775–1840 (Oxford, 1988),
3 Boot and Shoemaker, 14 June–6 Sept. 1879.
4 P. Benton, The History of Rochford Hundred (Rochford, 1867), p. 343.
5 Donnelly, ‘A Cato Street Conspirator’, p. 129; Hampshire Telegraph and Sussex Chronicle,
7 Sept. 1829.
6 Rémi Gossez (ed.), Un
‘If they treat the Indians humanely, all will be well’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain
courts of justice and not
invalidated because their customs prevented them from taking an
The model laws had a particular relevance in British NorthAmerica where Governor-General Lord Sydenham was being asked to advise
on future relations between settlers and Indigenous people. He had few
precedents to follow in undertaking this difficult task. To Indigenous
Nineteenth-century German literature and indigenous representations
and Oliver Simons have argued, the idea
of America in the German consciousness was first realised through literary sources
that transformed frontier experiences into a conceptual language that spoke to
metropolitan concerns. 1 Despite their
frontier topos, these writings were inherently internalist; focusing on German
histories, politics and intellectual questions, with little regard for the affairs
of indigenous peoples in NorthAmerica save for where they
Nordic records designate as the Western Hemispheric place where Norse travellers from Iceland and Greenland made land, encountered hostile indigenous peoples, and established brief settlements. Certainly in NorthAmerica and probably lying more northerly than southerly, the precise location of Vinland, despite decades of research and the strong convictions of many researchers, may never be known, if only because, in accordance with Norse geography, Vinland never had a precise location. Thingvellir, the site of the annual Icelandic parliament and social gathering, very
throughout nearly all of Asia and the Middle East, but are now
found only in small pockets of territory, most notably in India, China
and Russia, less than 10 per cent of their historical range. The wolf and
grizzly bear used to range across almost all regions in Europe, Northern
Asia and NorthAmerica; almost no bears remain in Europe and the wolf
has been eradicated in nearly all of its former territory in Europe and
much of NorthAmerica.
How do we understand the condition of animals now that low populations and drastically diminished habitat ranges are the new norms
In American and Canadian literature
of the nineteenth century, indigenous peoples of NorthAmerica were
frequently equated with wild animals, particularly wolves. The parallel
between wolves and Native Americans first emerged during America’s
colonial period in the seventeenth century, when Northeastern tribes and
wolves came to represent the colonists’ fight for survival in the