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histories are treated so separately by scholars on both sides of the water.2 This book, by contrast, has sought to bring their mutual dependence and influence to the fore through the study of religiosity, gender and ethnicity. The Catholic Church in Scotland became a multi-faceted institution that was neither purely Scottish nor purely Irish. Nor was it wholly British. It was characterised by a fusion of cultures and peoples with differing values and priorities. The church, as it exists today, could not have developed without the mass Irish migration that shook its

in Creating a Scottish Church

The origins of the Scottish Reformation Chapter 1 A ‘corrupt’ Church? ‘CORRUPTION’ AND ITS IMPORTANCE A fter 1560, when Roman Catholics looked back on the disaster that had engulfed their Church in Scotland, they knew who to blame. There was the greed of the nobles, the lassitude of the common people and – of course – the depravity of the Protestants. Above all, however, they blamed themselves. Lord Herries, who had repented of his own former Protestantism, described the years before the crisis in a tone of lamentation: It is certain that in these days the

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation

05-ChurchNationRace_178-235 28/11/11 14:44 Page 178 5 Responses to fascism The failure of the Catholic Church to criticise the National Socialist regime for its discrimination against German Jews and eventually the persecution and murder of European Jewry has been attributed either to ideological affinities, in particular Catholic antisemitism and a fear of socialism, or structural restraints imposed by the dictatorial regimes in Europe.1 In the case of Hitler’s Germany, historians have also referred to the intransigence of the regime regarding one of the

in Church, nation and race
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Introduction Between the Reformation and the middle of the nineteenth century, Catholics in Scotland were confined to small pockets in the north-east, the south-west and in the desolate and isolated villages of the western Highlands and Islands. The only people who received any kind of regular instruction were the aristocratic recusants who employed their own priests. Everyone else had to make do with a handful of inconspicuous chapels and infrequent visits from disguised missionaries. This outlawed, underground church bore little resemblance to the one that

in Creating a Scottish Church
Devotion, association and community

working-class consciousness that would grow stronger as the century closed. Land tenure and Home Rule spurred a nationalist energy that united people, and principles of citizenship were being contested by women, who wanted to participate and who were dissatisfied with their marginalised status. This ideological upheaval was threatening to the Catholic Church and forced it to find new ways of engaging people. The development of an associational and devotional culture that would appeal to both sexes and all age groups was prioritised. Catholic education had opened the

in Creating a Scottish Church
Coping with change

2 Reinventing strategies: coping with change As the previous chapter demonstrated, the tiny collections of Catholics that survived the Reformation relied upon their own initiative and secrecy to keep their church alive. Minimal support from Rome had allowed regional and national traditions to ferment, and this translated into a heterogeneous and disjointed catholicity. In 1827 the ecclesiastical boundaries of the old Highland and Lowland Districts were reorganised into the Eastern, Western and Northern Districts in an effort to improve church administration and

in Creating a Scottish Church

’ essentially cut across the neat separation of the religious sphere from the political sphere attempted in the Concordat. The 06-ChurchNationRace_236-270 28/11/11 14:45 Page 237 Waking up to the persecution of the Jews 237 treatment of ‘non-Aryan’ Catholics necessarily became a contentious subject between the state and the Church. The ever-increasing radicalisation of antisemitic policies also affected the Church directly. The ambition to erase all Jewish influence from German society increased anticlerical attacks defaming the Church for its Jewish roots. Yet the

in Church, nation and race
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3 • The Catholic Church It is generally agreed that the Catholic Church played a highly significant role in almost every dimension of the life of Irish migrants in nineteenthcentury Britain.1 Nonetheless, two caveats should be borne in mind. First, whilst a good deal of attention will be focused on the social, cultural and political impact of the church, its prime self-defined function was spiritual, namely to preach its version of the Christian message and provide the faithful with opportunities for worship, spiritual solace, instruction and guidance.2 Second

in The Irish in Manchester c. 1750–1921
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MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 6 Church and state The key to Ireland is the Church, its pontiffs, the Nuncio, MacRory and McQuaid and I think we should bother less about relations, good or bad, with the Government and more with relations with the Catholic Church. John Betjeman, 21 March 1943 Subsidiary function The exercise of collective responsibility to overcome material shortages infused political, economic and social debate during the Emergency. It also came to affect many aspects of everyday life: Irish people were not used to queuing, yet

in Ireland during the Second World War
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MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 07/18/2013, SPi 3 Church and state In the second half of the nineteenth century, Europe experienced intense antagonism between secular and ecclesiastical forces. In Germany, these conflicts peaked with the Kulturkampf of the 1870s; in Italy, they were exemplified by the ‘Rome question’ and the Papacy’s hostility towards the liberal state.1 In France, the legitimacy of the Third Republic was initially contested by an alliance of monarchists and Catholics. Spurred on by Cardinal Lavigerie in 1890, some French Catholics adopted a policy

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930