On mediated unity and overarching legal-political form
and the movement of refugees across the world. That means breaking with
the conservatism inherent in plan-versus-market and nationalisation-versus-
privatisation approaches to the economy. But it also means re-examining, in
more general terms, the premises that continue to inform prevailing notions
of democratic statehood and citizenship, starting with the central theme of
The term mediated unity expresses the idea that, if there was no way
to bridge the political distance between citizens and the state through intermediary instances of public and
of justice … [that] make it compatible with a more just social democratic model of society.’ 33 In addition to its anti-trust cases against Google, another example of this is the development and passage into law of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which seeks to give individuals control over the use of their private online data. Because it applies to any enterprise that deals with subjects located within the EU regardless of citizenship, it has had a profound effect on global data-sharing practices.
Despite its successes, the basic problem is that
power predates our modernity. It is, genealogically speaking, a Christian phenomenon. In a well-known pair of lectures, Foucault sketched the ways in which Christianity modified the Hebraic notion of the pastorate and then welded this conception on to the Greek notion of citizenship. 44 The Christian pastorate was a form of knowledge and conduct that mutated into a form of power – our modern ‘political rationality’ of the State – that is both individualising and in a sense totalitarian, a government of all and of each. Its object is at once the life of the
of property is the most sacred of all rights of citizenship, and even more
important in some respects than liberty itself because it affects the
preservation of life’ [‘le droit de propriété est le plus sacré de tous les droits
des citoyens’] (III: 263). Indeed, in Emile he even adopts the same
justification of property rights as Locke had developed in his Second Treatise
(Locke 1988: 99). Locke had argued that ‘though the earth and all inferior
creatures are common to all men, yet he has property in his own person
… the labour of his body and the work of his
Human rights violations by ‘private’ transnational actors
On the political strategies of societal
constitutionalism see Anderson, ‘Social democracy’,
pp. 33 ff.; Hardt and Negri, Multitude , pp. 202 ff.; Davis
et al. , ‘Social Rights, Social Citizenship, and
This suggestion is from
Democratic state, capitalist society, or dysfunctional
territorially based statehood in an increasingly
globalised world. This is a world in which knowledge, which cannot be consolidated within national borders, is fundamentally important for both social
systems and active citizenship. During the course of the preceding chapters
it has been asked whether the existing nation state can continue to steer on
so many fronts, and whether the model of ministerial responsibility still offers
a framework for flexible and responsive administration. In theoretical terms,
it is tempting to see the time from the publication of the Philosophy
Jurisdictions ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2001 ).
20 See W. Kymlicka , Multicultural Citizenship ( Oxford : Oxford University Press , 1995 ).
21 Philip Pettit has made this point in a number of writings, including ‘ The Consequentialist Perspective ’, in M. Baron, P. Pettit and M. Slote, Three Methods on Ethics ( London : Routledge , 1997 ).
22 Susan Okin ’s book Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? ( Princeton : Princeton University Press , 1999 ) has been an important font for this kind of thinking.
23 On this issue see J
1991: 5). He sang the praises of the rural life, but did not settle in Geneva.
The city of Geneva reinstated his citizenship in 1755 – after the publication of his Discourse on Inequality (which contained a preface which
praised the city). Rousseau, however, did not seem anxious to practice
what he what he had preached in his Discourse. Further, he later noted
that he was upset that the city of his birth had admitted Voltaire to live in
Geneva. ‘I knew’, wrote Rousseau, ‘that this man would cause a revolution
that I should find again in my own country
Eurosclerosis (1959– 84) and the second phase of integration (1985– 2003)
Peter J. Verovšek
emerge in the Treaty of Maastricht (1992). Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, this agreement paved the way for the expansion of the CM and granted the nationals of the member-states European citizenship. As citizens of the newly created European Union (previously Community), individuals from the member-states were allowed to work anywhere in Europe and were granted voting rights in that country’s local as well European parliamentary elections. Nicolas Jabko points out that ‘it was obvious at the time of the Maastricht treaty that the idea of European
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek
van den Burg quoted in van Middelaar, The Passage to Europe , 265; C. Lapavitsas et al. , Crisis in the Eurozone ( London : Verso , 2012 ), 90 –91 .
55 In A. Burr Overstreet , ‘ The Nature and Prospects of European Institutions: A Report on the Second Carnegie Endowment Conference on International Organization ,’ Journal of Common Market Studies , 3 : 2 ( 1964 ), 131 –132 .
56 R. Bellamy and A. Warleigh , ‘ From an Ethics of Integration to an Ethics of Participation: Citizenship and the Future of the European Union ,’ Millennium , 27