Alex Schafran, Matthew Noah Smith and Stephen Hall
formal rights, that guarantee citizens participation in democratic governance must be realized materially. A deliberative forum is not democratic if the physical space for deliberation is too small to accommodate all who wish to participate, or if the communication system is so fragile that it collapses under the weight of mass civic engagement. 39 Insofar as theorists of deliberative democracy even consider these issues, they treat them as afterthoughts. But they are not afterthoughts. For the capacities to deliberate collectively – however constrained or
gardening and the struggle for justice
land or community resources, which are at ‘risk’. In case study two –while stated
as a barrier –an example of this is that the group did not anticipate their gated
site being a challenge in qualifying for funding.
Outcome: ‘the commons’
The group has agreed aims and roles.They gain confidence and begin to co-manage
through collaboration, cooperation and communication (Hardt and Negri, 2004).
Negotiation moves from internal to external. As internal negotiation generates
knowledge and understanding of the processes necessary to form
Beata J. Gawryszewska, Maciej Łepkowski and Anna Wilczyńska
the right of unrestrained exploitation and shaping of
The European Landscape Convention (Council of Europe, 2000) specifies
landscape as an area, as viewed by individuals, whose character is the outcome of
the action and communication of natural and human elements. This definition
may be applied to every kind of space, especially to urban landscape. The continuing depletion of the natural resources of our planet, which could include the
constantly shrinking urban greenery available to inhabitants, make it necessary
to look for new landscapes which
Digital photography and cartography in Wolfgang Weileder’s
contemporary artists’ experiments with photography’s
nexus of time and space coincide both with philosophies about the shifting
contemporary experience of space-time, and with radical changes in the experience of photography as a medium per se. David Harvey’s influential analysis has
claimed that from the mid nineteenth-century, ‘capitalism became embroiled in
an incredible phase of massive long-term investment in the conquest of space’
(Harvey, 1989: 264). The advent of new technologies, such as the telegraph,
radio communication, and of course photography, ran alongside
ongoing stories are real challenges to cartography’ (Massey, 2005: 107).
Two kinds of timelessness
To complicate matters, some writers on geomedia are concerned that there
is not one kind of atemporality at stake, but two; the closure of the map to
past and future is paralleled by, and conflated with, a timelessness associated
with networked information and communication technologies (Farman, 2012;
Graham, Zook, and Boulton, 2013). This second concept of atemporality can
be found in prototype in Henri Bergson’s and Martin Heidegger
more ways of being human” ( Rorty, 2004 , 13). It is also a democratic communication strategy, as dreams exist in the world of the possible but improbable, so that we can expect people who may advance a dream in a communicative setting to be more open to compromise and reconsideration as the communication progresses.
Imagining may seem like a purely descriptive exercise, but, from a pragmatic perspective, it is in fact the key means by which a constantly evolving public is made more real through the accumulation of common experiences. Such actions can attach our
Alex Schafran, Matthew Noah Smith and Stephen Hall
systems are absent in many rural places – broadband internet, sewerage, or simply electricity – these communities do have systems for communication, waste disposal and energy provision. In some of the poorest urban parts of the world, reliance systems for communication, waste and energy may not be dramatically different from what they were in the village.
Fourth, by naming some systems after the institution that we imagine provisions them, or the geography in which we imagine they exist, the services framework ignores important reliance systems that have
problematic situations in the world (Bridge, Chapter 3 ; Fuller, Chapter 4 ; Huff, Chapter 8 ; Jon, Chapter 12 ). It grounds experimentation as a collective, deliberative and situated process rather than a solitary encounter with truth (Geiselhart, Chapter 7 ; Holden, Chapter 10 ; Jones, Chapter 11 ; Farahani and Esfahani, Chapter 13 ). These processes of experimentation and deliberation also require effective modes of communication within and beyond the inquiry, mobilising new ideas in ‘conversational politics’ that employ Rorty’s practice of re-description through
means by which a scattered, mobile and manifold public may so recognise itself so as to define and express its interests” ( 1927  , 146). He highlighted the role of multiple overlapping institutions such as “the family, the school, industry, religion” ( 1927  , 143) in underpinning public organisation. But more than this, the problem for the public was one of communication: “The essential need,” he maintained, “is the improvement of the methods and conditions of debate, discussion and persuasion. That is the problem of the public” ( 1927  , 208
Heterogeneous temporalities, algorithmic frames and subjective time in
– in the example, pagan and biblical history epistemologically and graphically encloses the map’s content within a
circular space around the body of Christ.
The navigational, by contrast, emphasises the performative character of the
mapping as an open process, and at the same time, the involvement of the spectator is thus able to challenge static and linear models of cartographic communication that are based on unified and standardised ontologies. Turnbull (2007),
for example, criticises ‘Western’ mapping practices for dismissing the local
and navigational dimension