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social strain-gauge’. 12 Although all manner of disputes and conflicts could give rise to sorcery, generally speaking the majority of stories depict farming or crofting households in ongoing competition with each other, although cases in which beggars went away empty-handed and muttering a curse 13 comprise their own clear sub-category of sorcery narratives. The reputations of ‘witches’ ( noita ) were thus rooted in tensions

in Witchcraft Continued

: 9) once attempted to photograph an Icelandic agricultural show of rams. Soon she realised that the show of rams was a secret ritual competition for male potency. Yet her photographs, in their flat two-dimensionality, were unable to convey this intense sensory experience of masculine sexuality. The deeper layers of the interaction between men and ram remained invisible to her camera. Like our YouTube exorcism, Hastrup's failed photography seemed to point at the lack of invisibility in the visually mediated recasting of reality: look, here

in Descending with angels

affiliated body, although the Kolel has recently subscribed. To represent the interests of this sector of Leeds Jewry alongside, for example, the Reform movement poses many challenges. The Sinai Reform synagogue dates from 1944 and since 1969 has been an affiliated organisation of the Rep. Council. Both lay and religious Sinai leaders complained regularly about being stigmatised by the wider Leeds community and many communal events have denied Sinai participation. The inter-synagogue annual football and cricket competitions are a rare example of

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
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Union which would expose them to unwanted English competition.62 Nevertheless, under the terms of the Act of Union, 1800, these tariffs were retained until 1808 and then gradually reduced. On 28 June 1822 a petition was sent to the Lord Lieutenant on behalf of the unemployed weavers of the city and Liberties of Dublin, who had endured hardship due to the ‘decaying trade’.63 The petition was also sent to the Dublin Society, Linen Board and Mendicity Association, and was signed by ‘upwards of 2,000 members of the trade’.64 John Brady, Secretary to the Linen Memorial

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940

. Much of the meat in the shop is certified by MBD, and some of it arrives via market intermediaries from factories in Eastern Europe, where shechita services are carried out under licence from MBD. The manager explains that many Jews in Denmark do not keep kosher and that the shop also has competition from kosher bought abroad and over the Internet. Consequently, the clientele is small, but devout and he knows all his customers personally. Because of its limited customer base Copenhagen Kosher can import only limited quantities of pre-​packed kosher products and

in Religion, regulation, consumption
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an opportunity for a company such as Novozymes to demonstrate how they comply with complex religious requirements and to establish and maintain a personalised relationship between staff and inspectors. This is important, because in the eyes of a company such as Novozymes kosher compliance in the form of certification and standardisation is considered value-​added in competition with other companies that are not kosher-​certified. In 2010 OU and its inspector announced that the yearly inspection would take place in May and Novozymes’ management agreed that

in Religion, regulation, consumption
The social sphere

is its adherence to the more formal meaning of the democratic idea. Democratic rules of the game are maintained, including free elections and multi-party competition but, at the same time, this form of government is distinct from liberal democracy. Conceptually, this is because non-liberal democracy places the interests of one group of citizens over those of other groups, encroaches upon the social sphere and restricts civil liberties. The non-liberal democracy is therefore laden with numerous incongruities, and these are even more prominent in its education

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence

these backgrounds. For instance, Jean Allut was a cabinet-maker, Jean Cavalier a weaver and Elie Marion a clerk.49 Jean-Pierre Poussou’s study also reveals that the Huguenots specialised in glass, bed linen and oil works in Brandenburg; they were active in banking in Switzerland and excelled in paper and silk manufacturing, as well as in jewellery and clock-making in England.50 Xenophobic feelings against French refugees prevailed mostly among the English lower classes, who were confronted by harsh foreign competition. French fashion was already in vogue by 1700, but

in Enlightening enthusiasm

, the congregation held an architectural competition (1889–90) for their new building, a happening rare even in the metropolis. The winning architect was William Henry Thorp (1852–1944) 15 who had previously won several other competitions for public buildings in Leeds, including the City Art Gallery (1886–8). 16 In 1890, he was elected president of the forerunner of the West Yorkshire Society of Architects. According to his obituarist, Thorp ‘became one of the best-known architects in the North of England’. 17 The Building News

in Leeds and its Jewish Community

-Rahman-ar-Rahim (in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful) to its constitution:15 an echo, perhaps, of the political changes in Bangladesh described in Chapter 4. The Iranian revolution of 1979 gave Islamic politics a new prominence. Iran’s is a Shia Islamism, of less immediate relevance to the majority of Britain’s South Asian Muslims, but the revolution also began a competition between Iran and Saudi Arabia for British Muslim hearts and minds. Saudi money helped boost Jamaat (and also Deobandi) organisations. By 1985, Dawatul Islam had taken control of the East London

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End