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policies in Ireland, continuing political and social upheaval and mass emigration, none suggested US government intervention with its British counterpart. Yet, neither did any consul recommend to the State Department that Irish immigration be restricted. Likewise, it was the need to maintain the strong commercial relationship between the northeast of Ireland and the US which saw consuls in that locality accurately identify for their superiors that opposition to London’s home rule legislation was natural for some Irishmen. However, the outbreak of wars or disputes

in American government in Ireland, 1790–1913
Why they matter

emigration by men. So, one key question that must be addressed is what were/are the differences? And, second, what does this tell us about Irish women’s lives, Irish diasporas and perceptions of Irish womanhood? Emigration is one of the central and enduring realities of modern Ireland. The origins of modern mass emigration can be traced to the early eighteenth century; Ireland, unique among modern nations underwent approximately one century of sustained population decline, which was caused by emigration. In 1881 40 per cent of those born in Ireland were living outside the

in Women and Irish diaspora identities

Isles. Thereafter the cumulative urbanisation of the British population began to change the character of the outflows from Britain, and increasingly its emigrants became townsfolk. The genesis of such migration was formed in its rural phase, before it was transformed into an overwhelmingly urban phenomenon. The enhanced mobility and rapid urbanisation emerged vitally in this context of agrarian and industrial acceleration in the late eighteenth century. A little later, by 1830, these economic transformations were also feeding the movements of mass emigration out of

in The genesis of international mass migration
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opportunities, rather than as in Ireland, where mass emigration was seen as a damning indictment of British government policy. 7 The articulation of loneliness and loss, as well as other symptoms, also appears in the historiography of nineteenth-century New Zealand. In his provocative The Ideal Society and its Enemies , historian Miles Fairburn argues that New Zealand’s social organisation was ‘gravely deficient

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
Open Access (free)
The predicament of history

which historians are usually most reluctant to confront: the idea that in recovering these traditions of West Indian thought we ourselves, in Britain, might be able to think more creatively about our own historical situation. Or in other words, the overriding reason may be an intellectual one, drawing into question our own analytical procedures. In the middle decades of the twentieth century mass

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Technologies of mobility and transnational lives

. Users are able to set up a personal page for past pupils to access and then share information and photos. This was a very popular social networking site in the mid-2000s, coinciding with the mass emigration of young Polish graduates.1 Most participants have been involved in Nasza Klasa at some point. It seemed to be particularly important to migrants who were interested in renewing old contacts from Poland: [I]t was the only chance to contact people from high school, of whom I didn’t have any phone numbers or anything. And when I was logging into my class profile

in New mobilities in Europe
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The public meanings of emigration and the shaping of emigrant selves in post- war Ireland, 1945– 1969

controversial aspect of Irish society, resulting in the departure of well over a million men and women between 1921 and 1971. 6 In this context, where the revivalist code of national identity promoted by elites was antipathetic to both the persistence of emigration and the forms of industrial modernisation necessary for its reduction, the fatalistic rhetoric of ‘exile’ was now redirected against internal aspects of Irish life. Where previously the ‘exile’ signified the injustice of external misrule, mass emigration to the ‘auld enemy’ after 1945 provoked agonised self

in Life history and the Irish migrant experience in post-war England
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Ireland and its relationship with migration

periods as associated with a uni-directional flow of migration. Thus, the 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. The reality, for each of these periods, is more complicated. People migrated to, and continue to migrate to, Ireland in all of the emigrant decades, and people continued to leave Ireland during the Celtic Tiger era, often under very difficult conditions. Now, as in the past, the misinterpretation of demographic data

in Migrations

emigration was emerging as a force for change in its own way. It was a relatively small component of the rise of mass emigration in these decades. Kent reflected trends in the national story. Indeed between 1861 and 1911, thirty-five counties showed declining populations in their rural districts. But the story had begun before this: Armstrong identified a crisis in Kent in the decades from 1815 to 1840, a time of turbulence and anxiety, when rapid population growth was little mitigated by external release through migration. By the late nineteenth century Kent had been

in The genesis of international mass migration
Theatre as critic and conscience of Celtic Tiger Ireland

economic sovereignty from the neocolonial clutches of the EU/IMF Troika, by 2014–15. The problem is that what is being protected in the face of a wholesale withdrawal of the State and its services is the failed economic infrastructure. Minimum social guarantees are disappearing in the face of a frenzied assault by new beasts, whose ‘appetite for prey’ is greater than any tiger – the voracious demons of the global market economy. Since Ireland’s economic collapse, the social landscape is marked by abandoned homes, a collapse in living standards, closed-­up shops and mass

in From prosperity to austerity