discharge of pauper lunatics from county asylums in mid-
Victorian England: the case of Buckinghamshire’, in J. Melling and B. Forsythe
(eds), Insanity, Institutions and Society 1800–1914: A Social History of Madness in
Comparative Perspective (Abingdon, 1999), pp. 93–112.
41 D. Wright, ‘The discharge of pauper lunatics’; A. Suzuki, Madness at Home: The
Psychiatrist, the Patient, and the Family in England, 1820–1860 (Berkley and Los
42 L. Westwood, ‘Avoiding the Asylum: Pioneering Work in MentalHealthCare,
1890–1939’ (DPhil thesis, Sussex University
. Suzuki, ‘The Politics and Ideology of Non-Restraint: the Case of the
Hanwell Asylum’, Medical History, 39 (1995), 1–17.
Returns relating to District Lunatic Asylums in Ireland, 1833  xxxiv, p. 21.
Cherry, MentalHealthCare in Modern England, p. 101; Melling and Forsythe, The
Politics of Madness, p. 56.
DPH, CLA Minute Book, 21 October 1846.
L. D. Smith, ‘Behind Closed Doors: Lunatic Asylum Keepers, 1800–1860’, Social
History of Medicine, 1 (1988), 301–328, 307.
Melling and Forsythe, The Politics of Madness, p. 57. For example, see DPH, CLA
Minute Book, 9 January
Services , 29:2 (1999), 295–352.
12 Pavee Point Traveller and Roma Centre, Submission to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on the Future of MentalHealthCare (Dublin: Pavee Point Traveller and Roma Centre, 2017).
13 Traveller Health Unit Eastern Region, Use of Hospital Facilities by the Traveller Community – Summary Report (Dublin: Traveller Health Unit Eastern Region, 2004).
14 Commission on Itinerancy, Report of the Commission on Itinerancy (Dublin: The Stationery Office, 1963), p. 11
sane?’ she asked one psychiatrist. ‘I don’t always’, he admitted. ‘I don’t think I
DESTIGMATISING MENTAL ILLNESS?
1 R. Porter, A Social History of Madness: Stories of the Insane (London, 1999), p. 4.
See also R. Porter, ‘Hearing the mad. Communication and excommunication’, in
L. de Goei and J. Vijselaar (eds), Proceedings of the First European Congress on the
History of Psychiatry and MentalHealthCare (Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 338–52,
and R. Porter (ed.), The Faber Book of Madness (London, 1991). Other influential works which focus on
responsibility on doctors implementing compulsory detentions,
rather than the courts, and its recommendations were embedded into
the Mental Health Act 1959.231
The Act placed a new emphasis on community care, and its aims
were to reduce the number of inpatients immediately and, in the long
term, to change the course of mentalhealthcare provision. The Act
unreservedly damned overcrowding as an organisational malpractice, that produced in itself a great deal of ill health. Furthermore,
it introduced the concept of ‘informal’ patients; these were to be
treated in outpatient
discrimination (equality), and access to high quality mental health
services (entitlement).4 These principles are enshrined in international law in
treaties and declarations that directly apply to the rights of persons with mental
illness. In 1991, the United Nations adopted Principles for the Protection of Persons
with Mental Illness and for the Improvement of MentalHealthCare (the MI
Principles).5 The MI Principles include a preference for community care; the right
to the least restrictive environment; clear standards and natural justice for
compulsory admission; legal
Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.
Murray, C. (2013) ‘Moving towards rights-based mental health law: the limits
of legislative reform’, Irish Jurist, 49: 161.
Nedelsky, J. (2011) Law’s Relations: A Relational Theory of Self, Autonomy and
Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
O’Sullivan, L. (2008) Health and Wellbeing of Family Carers in Ireland: Results
of a Survey of the Recipients of the Carers’ Allowance. Dublin: Combat
Prior, P. (ed.) (2012) Asylums, MentalHealthCare, and the Irish: Historical
Studies 1800–2010. Dublin: Irish
Beecham J. (1995) Collecting and estimating costs, in Knapp M.R.J. (Ed.) The
Economic Evaluation of MentalHealthCare, Aldershot: Arena.
Department of Health and Children (1997) Enhancing the Partnership: Report
of the Working Group on the Implementation of the Health Strategy in
Relation to Persons with a Mental Handicap, Dublin: Department of Health
Emerson E., Alborz A., Felce D., Lowe K. (1995) Residential Services Setting
Questionnaire, Manchester: Hester Adrian Research Centre, University of
Emerson E., Hatton C. (1994
statistics: and sex and drugs and
rock ‘n’ roll. London: Sage.
Salsburg, D. (2001) The lady tasting tea: how statistics
revolutionized science in the twentieth century. New
York: W.H. Freeman.
Grundy, A.C., Bee, P., Meade, O., Callaghan, P., Beatty,
S., Ollevent, N. and Lovell, K. (2016) Bringing meaning
to user involvement in mentalhealthcare planning: a
qualitative exploration of service user perspectives.
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 70
Eileen Martin, Emma McKenna, Henk Mulder and Norbert Steinhaus
questions (such as, for example, the issue of local air quality) were the
key elements of this EC call. The call was widely publicized by the network and a
total of twenty-seven eligible applications were received, indicating the strength
and diversity of the science shop movement, with four projects eventually being
funded. These dealt with health effects of noise from wind turbines; cycling and
air pollution; optimizing public transport for the elderly; and mentalhealthcare
for immigrant communities. Even where these applications were unsuccessful,