whether conscious or not, from which the actual appropriation of language can take place. 10 While Kelman attempts to resist the reductive marginalisation and othering of a language and a culture, he also abrogates standard bearers on another front: nationality. In his last two novels, he questions the validity of national definition, and looks at the violence and oppressions carried out through establishment state politics in the name of national ‘integrity’ and cultural tribalism. Kelman worries at nationality because, as a libertarian

in James Kelman

cultural autonomy, territorial integrity, and symbols of statehood; on the other hand it insisted on the supremacy of the central state and government and strove for a state of affairs where national separateness and ethnic identity would ultimately wither away’.3 The USSR’s adoption of an ‘ethno-territorial’ form of federalism was originally designed as a temporary measure, adopted to entice the nonRussian nationalities to join the union. But as Gleason notes, such a principle entailed a recognition of the ‘national statehood’ of the constituent republics.4 Under Soviet

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Gareth Dale

have bestowed upon it, on the other hand the organisation and unification of broad segments of the oppressed, of disenfranchised intellectuals and petit bourgeois, the peasantry and the nationalities, could not even be initiated. After the beautiful and passionate period of the first demonstrations had come to an end, the historic victory of which is today beyond doubt, what was the Social Democratic Party able to show for its radical-political agenda? Nothing but an augmentation of the labour movement by a few socialists, some openly, others furtively. This was of

in Karl Polanyi

its identity (dépersonnalisation), was one of progress, challenging established social, racial and gendered orders. This fight to claim the monopoly on authenticity was not unique to Algeria. In newly independent Tunisia in 1956, as President Habib Bourguiba pushed through the new Personal Status Code, outlawing polygamy and repudiation and recognising right of mothers to pass Tunisian Embodying the nation 147 nationality on to their children, he justified each innovation with a quotation from the Qur’an, arguing that this was a ‘return’ to the pre

in Our fighting sisters

before December 1922 were included as Irish citizens. The Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act (1935) granted citizenship to all people born on the territory of the Irish Free State. The 2001 Citizenship Act extended entitlement to citizenship to all people born on the island of Ireland, an adjustment that was made as part of the peace process following the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. However, after the Citizenship Act (2005), this only applied to Irish-born children who could count at least one Irish national as a parent. If the child had no Irish parents, there was

in Defining events

materialist awareness of, and concern with, (institutional, regional, professional, socio-economic) ‘locations’ in which postcoloniality is produced and circulated. Robert Young’s intervention here instead emphasises ethnic or national ‘origins’ of critics in isolation from, and at the expense of, such ‘locations’. Crucial to note here is the inconsistency, the doubleness of Young’s standards: he deems ethnicity to be most significant in Spivak’s case, but when it comes to Parry switches tack to emphasise the category of nationality. (I wonder what might have resulted had

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)

259 Conclusion 259 doned soldiers and sailors to embrace the Allied cause and their tendency to insist upon repatriation tarred the reputation of all the French in Britain, even those belonging to de Gaulle. Their position was further weakened by the contrasting manner in which other exiled nationalities, especially the Poles, rushed to take up arms against the Axis powers. According to Mass-Observation studies of 1940–42, the British public no longer thought a future Anglo-French friendship desirable and viewed the French as among the most exasperating of allies

in The forgotten French
Abstract only

popular publications was their flexibility and responsiveness to the needs of nationality and Empire. The reality of the British Empire was that it encompassed a great variety of peoples and places. This fact made available an extraordinary amount of ‘raw material’ for the historian seeking an heroic past, and for the adventure writers who placed their fiction in the far corners of the globe. Because

in Britannia’s children

-generation immigrants – even if they are not first-generation immigrants themselves. Typically, immigrant-origin children are defined as those whose parents – either one or both – are born abroad, though sometimes the focus is on the parents’ country of origin or nationality, and sometimes the focus is on home language, ethnicity, religion or legal status. Immigrant-origin students in Ireland often find themselves in a situation whereby, on the one hand, they are ‘outsiders’ with little familiarity of the nature of the Irish school system. On the other hand

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Abstract only

wider institutional environment within which the WTO and its Secretariat are embedded. The next section unpacks the meso-level, i.e. the formal organisation of the WTO Secretariat as well as its function within the WTO system. The third section focuses on the micro-level, i.e. the composition of the staff, recruitment procedures, years of tenure, nationality and other demographic factors. The general aim of the chapter is to explore the anatomy of the WTO Secretariat as well as the functions and roles of the Secretariat and its officials and the wider context of both

in Unpacking international organisations