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Setting a baseline of comparison

interrelationship between morality and post-mortal punishments are strongly influenced by a universal morality which stands separate from and operates independently of local secular laws. The brief mention of animal incarnations resulting from infringements of this universal morality, and the way in which Tua Ya Pek immediately personalised the context suggested (and this was later confirmed during interviews) that the actuality of a future animal incarnation does not enter the mind-sets or religious life-worlds of practitioners. Rather, in the Underworld tradition it is commonly

in Voices from the Underworld
Negotiating community

salient point that the above-cited studies (with the exception of Al-Ali) all discuss the performance of Muharram in southern Iraq and in the historically important shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala. In other areas such as Baghdad or northern parts of Iraq, Muharram was not commemorated to the same extent, just as Shi‘a religious life was generally less intense there than in southern Iraq (cf. Nakash 1994: 97). Rather than calling Umm Ali’s commemoration of Muharram a specific Iraqi tradition, it would therefore be more appropriate to call it a tradition that relates

in Iraqi women in Denmark
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Entrepreneurs and professionals

, modifying or denationalising Irish identity has been subject to much research and debate.73 Gilley has emphasised, however, that much of Irish Catholic religious life in Forgotten Irish: entrepreneurs and professionals     281 Britain remains hidden.74 We still lack studies of Irish Catholic life within the missions that probe the motivations and even the beliefs of those engaged. Gilley and Mary Heimann have criticised historians for viewing the religious dimension solely, and perhaps ahistorically, in terms of modern self-interested secular motivation, an approach that

in Divergent paths
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Welsh Church brought together Welsh Nonconformists of different denominational persuasions, and became the focus of the town’s vigorous linguistic, cultural and religious life. Its Sunday school was said to be ‘a virtual nursery of the Welsh language in the Ipswich area’, and the Church initiated Blackstone’s St David’s Society, as well as organising the town’s first Eisteddfod in 1887. In the previous year, 1886, the Brisbane Cambrian Society had successfully lobbied Queensland’s agent-general in London to appoint a Welsh-speaking recruiting lecturer, a measure of

in British and Irish diasporas
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The Conference of Religious in Ireland (Justice Commission)

of religious congregations in relation to the service areas in which they have had a major role since the nineteenth century. There are other commissions, which relate to more internal matters, such as the Commissions for Religious Life, Pastoral Affairs, and Northern Ireland. 160 Asymmetric engagement Table 8.1  CORI Justice landmarks Year Landmark 1958 Establishment of Conference of Major Religious Superiors, prior to Vatican II Gaudium et Spes – The Church in the Modern World (a key document of Vatican II) Congregations adopt the commitment to justice of

in Asymmetric engagement
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The empirical turn of Irish Catholic sociology in the 1950s

priesthood and other forms of religious life. Amidst widespread anxiety about a shortfall of vocations, Ireland –​which supplied not only its own needs but had several 95 Facing facts 95 substantial seminaries educating priests for other parts of the English-​speaking world and a number of missionary societies and religious orders supplying manpower for missions in ‘pagan’ countries  –​was a spectacularly bright spot. Its position therefore tended to be discussed in terms of the societal features that rendered it so productive of vocations or of its potential capacity

in Church, state and social science in Ireland
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Towards ethical ethnography

when I was exploring representations of campus politics in the national media. This hermeneutic approach, which is strongly influenced by Emile Durkheim’s (2001) The Elementary Forms of Religious Life Finding the words 45 and by linguistic structuralism, seemed to offer explanations for intensely felt political polarisation, which took seriously the subjective meanings of conflict for those involved. In contrast to Marxist and Weberian traditions in conflict sociology, focused on underlying material interests, Strong Program theories explore how social solidarity

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics
Religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794

(undated; destroyed, 1794) and at Hoogstraete near Brabant (undated; destroyed, 1794). Notes 1 Barbara B. Diefendorf, From Penitence to Charity: Pious Women and the Catholic Reformation in Paris (Oxford, 2004), pp. 7, 17, 136–71; Katy Gibbons, English Catholic Exiles in Late Sixteenth-Century Paris (Woodbridge, 2011), pp. 162–63. 2 Lady Lucy Herbert, Several Methods and Practises of Devotion: Appartaining to a Religious Life (Bruges: the widow of Jonh [sic] de Cock, 1743), pp. [241–42]. 3 Melville Henry Massue, marquis de Ruvigny and Raineval, The Jacobite Peerage, ed

in British and Irish diasporas

different analysis, was able to highlight was the fact that the Jewish leadership played an important role in preventing the complete moral collapse of a community in conditions so dire that survival had become the main i­mperative. The survival of a distinct cultural and religious life, the provision of both secular and religious education and so forth were for Gringauz a miraculous achievement. This is what other Jewish historians have identified by the Hebrew term Amidah. Bauer, one of those involved in developing this idea, includes within Amidah, in addition to the

in Bauman and contemporary sociology