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Constituting the cultural economy
Fran Tonkiss

market power rather than one of insecurity. That is most likely to be the case in fields such as multimedia and software programming where companies have difficulty in recruiting specialist staff, and confront high rates of turnover and dynamic, often international, labour markets (Skills Observatory, 2000, p. 5). The labour market effects of this kind of skillsshortage are compounded by a strong freelance ethos in growth sectors where working outside a company’s structure is seen as preferable – in both a financial and a cultural sense – to working inside one (see

in Market relations and the competitive process
Surviving change c.1970-90
Duncan Mitchell

development of asylum nursing owed much to medical superintendents. Reforming medical superintendents, at different times, identified skill shortages among the asylum workforce and then encouraged training as a way of disciplining and controlling their staff.14 The medical superintendents used their own professional organisation, the Royal Medico-Psychological Association (RMPA), to oversee and accredit training schemes for nurses in both mental and mental deficiency asylums. Training consisted of medical lectures and practice in the areas in which the nurse was going to

in Mental health nursing
Liverpool City Council’s struggle with the Thatcher Government
Neil Pye

to address skills shortages in the local economy which went hand in hand with problems of both cyclical and youth unemployment. As firms such as Lucas and Spillers made workers redundant, youth apprenticeships became scarce. The lack of opportunities gave rise to criminal activity.23 Throughout the 1970s, Liverpool’s inner city had one of the worst crime rates in Britain. A representative from the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) warned Prime Minister James Callaghan that the crisis affecting Merseyside would become ‘a law and order problem’.24 By the early

in Labour and the left in the 1980s
Alex Balch

referred heavily to the European Employment Strategy (EES – the Luxembourg process) and the conclusions of the Lisbon Council in 2000 (the Lisbon process), which highlighted the EU’s structural labour market problems and skills shortages. The report also cited evidence from Germany, Denmark and Austria, which reported net positive benefits from immigration, and underlined that this research found nothing to suggest an increased burden on welfare states: ‘The ability of different countries and regions in the EU to compensate for demographic effects and to mobilise unused

in Managing labour migration in Europe
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek and Justyna Salamońska

, yet it is socially meaningful as stereotypes about ‘hardworking Poles’ attest (Anderson et al., 2006). As most of the research on employer attitudes towards migrants focus on low-wage sectors, the question remains to what extent the strategies of firms differ in relation to higher-skilled migrants. It makes sense to analytically distinguish between labour shortages, where it is the poor conditions of a job that deters local workers, and skill shortages, where 02_Krings_Ch-1.indd 16 4/1/2013 9:04:20 PM NEW MOBILITIES IN EUROPE TODAY 17 there are insufficient

in New mobilities in Europe
Philip Ollerenshaw

business history of the war ‘remains under a shroud’,144 evidence on different firms can exemplify the problems in expanding output. What this shows is that even large firms on direct contracts faced very substantial obstacles to expanding production and that the process was never smooth. Shortage of raw materials, labour immobility, skill shortages, trade disputes, production bottlenecks, managerial shortcomings, dispersal of production, transport disruption, endless changes to specifications and erratic ordering by government all contributed to this. Similarly, once

in Northern Ireland in the Second World War
A. James Hammerton

Australian plan. Andrew’s occupation, listed by the government as an area of skills shortage, together with Nicky’s nursing, facilitated a relatively easy bureaucratic process, which confirmed Andrew’s sense of the mobile quality of his training. ‘I considered the world my oyster, you know, I mean an electronic engineer, and I’m never going to be short of work, but … I can pick wherever I want in the world to live, so that’s effectively what we did.’ By 1992, back in Melbourne, Andrew’s rosy work prospects initially were dashed; job demand had been exaggerated and the

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Abstract only
The Community Workers’ Co-operative
Joe Larragy

enterprise broadly divided into three ­categories – ­community enterprises, deficient demand enterprises and public service contract e­ nterprises – for the purposes of generating employment and meeting important local social needs. All of these enterprises belonged on a continuum between purely commercial and purely statutory provision. The timing, however, was not great because the labour market was changing so rapidly and instead of mass unemployment there were not just skill shortages, but labour shortages, in many sectors. The key initiative in the PPF talks proposed

in Asymmetric engagement
Abstract only
The National Women’s Council of Ireland
Joe Larragy

. What seems to have been driving policy, more simply, was the unprecedented demand for labour at the time. Not only had the Irish economy run into skill shortages but there were labour The National Women’s Council of Ireland 199 shortages across the board. The budgetary measures on tax individualisation, side by side with the very limited policy on childcare provision in 2000, points to a strong labour market orientation on the part of the government with very limited reference to the wider aspects of childcare policy. The Programme for Prosperity and Fairness By

in Asymmetric engagement
The restructuring of work in Germany
Louise Amoore

natural features of German state-society – they are continually brought into question and rebuilt, and this is intensifying as the global discourse on flexibility gains ground. Second, the greatest challenge to the prevailing programme of occupational status maintenance comes from the growing sector of German society that is excluded from the provision. The costs of the dual system intensify the exiting disincentives for German firms to employ new apprentices, exerting pressure on youth employment rates and giving rise to the possibility of a future skills shortage

in Globalisation contested