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Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 4 1 Agriculture As far as major trends and changes in Irish agriculture after 1850 are concerned, the bog (so to speak) has been so skilfully, ably and comprehensively stripped that it would be an insult to the hardworking historians who performed this back-breaking task to clamp their sods of evidence in different patterns to make them look somehow new. What follows is a brief summary of their findings, but the bulk of the chapter is a discussion of change and continuity in everyday farm-work in Ireland

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
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Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 108 7 Institutions Nineteenth-century institutions lasted a long time in Ireland. Reformatories and industrial schools still operated in the 1970s. Psychiatric hospitals began to experiment with ‘care in the community’ in the 1960s and 1970s, but many of the features of the old lunatic asylum remained until much later. Magdalen asylums lasted until the 1980s. The hated workhouses were more or less abolished after independence, though the more benign county homes which replaced them continued to house some

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 24 2 Non-agricultural work Introduction There was some development of non-agricultural employment in Ireland between 1851 and 1922, but this does not mean that there was work for everyone. Emigration masked the true extent of unemployment, millions of people moving from the country and sending home money to those who could not survive on the wages paid for the work they described themselves as doing to the census. Any discussion of ‘gains’ must bear this firmly in mind. There was, however, an increase in the

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 57 4 Emigration and migration They went across the fields at six o’clock this morning, they are in America long ago. (Tipperary boy, 1890s, asked about his sisters1) How many and where? The alarming figures have been so often repeated that we are in danger of taking them for granted: in 1890 there were 3 million Irish people living outside of Ireland and 40 per cent of all Irish-bybirth people in the world were

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
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Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 90 6 Public health On 27 February 1873, William Corcoran, a baker in Tuam, Co. Galway, summoned the doctor to look at his 22–year-old assistant William Burke. The doctor took one look, diagnosed smallpox and ordered young William to the local workhouse hospital. Instead, however, Corcoran brought him to the railway station and settled him on the train home to Athenry. By the time William Burke died, some days later, a full-scale public health alert was in place. Kineen’s hotel in Athenry was closed by public

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 142 9 Houses, food, clothes Houses Bhí áthas orainn go léir a bheith ag aistriú as an seana-pholl gránda . . . Bhíomar múchta ‘nár mbeathaidh istigh ann agus dá fheabhas a dheineadh mo mháthair a dícheall chun é a choimeád slachtmhar do theipeadh uirthe. (We were all glad to be moving out of the ugly old hole . . . We were smothered alive inside in it and however hard my mother tried to keep it tidy, she couldn’t manage it.)1 A combination of legislation, town planning and cultural change led to the gradual

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Bryan Fanning

celebration of exoticism, are unlikely to be sufficient to challenge racisms in society. Racialised perceptions of minorities are unlikely to be shifted by measures that do not acknowledge and contest the racism and discrimination experienced by such minorities. 180 Racism and social change in Ireland The notion that symbolic measures alone constitute a weak multiculturalism is an important point in the Irish context. Arguably a strong multiculturalism cannot emerge without the ideological support provided by symbolic measures. Yet, racism and inequality prevail unless

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
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Bryan Fanning

Social Change in the Republic of Ireland, locates racism in Irish society within a historical context. It is argued in Chapter 2 that Ireland was never immune from the racist ideologies that governed relationships between the west and the rest, despite a history of colonial anti-Irish racism. The title of the book also alludes to social change resulting from recent immigration. To some extent the politicisation of asylum issues in Ireland has mirrored responses throughout ‘Fortress Europe’ and in other western countries. Newspaper headlines during 1997 depicted Ireland

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Bryan Fanning

experiment. It was a first step. He felt that there was not much point in talking about the elderly itinerants. They would have to concentrate on the children and see that they were educated. He felt that education was the kernel of the problem and they would have a far better chance of educating the children if they were in a central camp.7 114 Racism and social change in Ireland The second advantage, in the view of some councillors, was that it would remove the need to provided ‘camping sites’ around the county. As put by one councillor: ‘If they provide camps in

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
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Bryan Fanning

which constructed the Irish Celt or Gael as an ideal type, who was pure of race, loved his or her religion and country and was, above all, Catholic. These racial undertones were, for example, described in the Gaelic Annual (1907-8): 10 Racism and social change in Ireland The Irish Celt is distinguished among the races for height and strength, manly vigour and womanly grace: despite wars and domestic disabilities, the stamina of the race has survived in almost pristine perfection. The ideal Gael is a matchless athlete, sober, pure in mind, speech and deed, self

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland