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The relationship between Scotland and the British Empire in the twentieth century was both wide-ranging and highly complex. In the opening year of the century, the Scottish economy was still strongly connected with imperial infrastructures (like railways, engineering, construction and shipping), and colonial trade and investment. The industrial profile of Glasgow was securing a

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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-reflexiveness which is a condition for … complex seeing’.5 They contrasted 58 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century them with ‘two exemplary autobiographies’, Carolyn Steedman’s Landscape for a Good Woman and Ronald Fraser’s In Search of a Past. Steedman addressed her own autobiographical writing to the perceived limitations of this genre.6 In addition, while there had long been a recognition that successive generations could repeat nostalgic claims about the past, Joanna Bourke took this to new heights in rejecting the version of community

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
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Chapter 6 Conclusion Looking back on the twentieth century as a whole and returning to some of the themes I raised in the introduction, we can begin to get a sense of what was distinctive about the middle years of the century. It is clear that for most of the period, certainly from c.1934 to c.1973, living standards for those in work increased significantly.1 This was underpinned by rising real earnings, which increased by nearly half between 1948 and 1965, with particularly strong growth rates from 1954.2 As the era of ‘full’ employment continued, overtime

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
Scottish emigration in the twentieth century

Scottish emigrants in the eight decades after the First World War matched the numbers who had left between 1815 and 1914. But the contours of intercontinental migration were significantly redrawn during the twentieth century as a consequence of two world wars, ongoing developments in communications technology, and the phenomenon of globalisation, with significant implications for

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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Family, memory and modernity

Chapter 5 Home: family, memory and modernity The middle years of the twentieth century have frequently been presented as a period in which a particular version of modern, largely suburban domesticity achieved hegemony in English life. In the inter-war period, for example, the growth of suburbia in the form of both owner-occupied ‘Tudorbethan’ and municipal neo-Georgian seemed to offer middle and working class alike a modern, mass-produced version of the cottage lifestyle in almost infinitely variegated pastiches of vernacular architecture.1 While the Second

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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The social geography of working class housing

Chapter 3 Place: the social geography of working class housing This chapter focuses on the twin modernising forces which reshaped working class neighbourhoods in the period between the 1920s and the mid-1970s: slum clearance and council housing. In terms of design, layout, household space and amenities the suburban council estates of the mid-twentieth century were a vast improvement on the kind of housing occupied by working class families in the pre-First World War period. Yet suburbanisation, arguably, came at a cost. During the 1950s and 1960s sociologists

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England

prudent to distinguish Scotland from Ireland. From the founding of the Union to the middle decades of the twentieth century, most Scots have been enthusiastic participants in the empire. In her seminal account of the origins of modern Britain, Linda Colley argued that ‘trade and Empire, war and military service’ were two bases of an emerging British identity in the 1707–1837 era

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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The Irish ‘inheritance’ of British Labour

unionist majority, remaining an integral part of the United Kingdom, though with limited, devolved ‘home rule’. How British Labour responded to the emerging Irish settlement of 1918–22, and its later relations throughout the twentieth century with the independent Irish state (in its foreign policy and in particular in its conduct of British–Irish relations, not least in relation to partition) and with Northern Ireland, is, understandably, a story of considerable complexity, demanding close attention to particular episodes, issues and personalities. However, it is a story

in The British Labour Party and twentieth-century Ireland
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People Think about Public Houses (1950), table 6; Market and Opinion Research International, Public Attitudes to Pubs and Leisure, June, 1984, p. 81. Gutzke_WomenDrinking.indd 279 22/11/2013 11:02 280 Women drinking out in Britain Women’s drinking habits were revolutionized in the last quarter of the twentieth century, creating an entirely new subculture of drinking (Table 7).5 As then Publican editor Caroline Nodder recalled about the mid-1970s, ‘There were no alcopops. No gastropubs. No table service. No health and safety risk assessments. No lager louts. No

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
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Irish nationalism, the rise of Labour and the Catholic Herald, 1888–1918

2 Uneasy transitions: Irish nationalism, the rise of Labour and the Catholic Herald, 1888–1918 Joan Allen In the early years of the twentieth century a significant percentage of Irish workers in Britain came to privilege their proletarian solidarities at the local level and to regard the nascent Labour Party as best positioned to defend their day-to-day interests. This turn to Labour has been attributed as much to the solidarities of working-class associational life as to a growing reluctance to defer to the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), which had routinely

in The British Labour Party and twentieth-century Ireland