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Derek Fraser

growing immigrant population to become a burden on the state, with the attendant risks of provoking anti-Semitism. •  After the Edwardian Liberal reforms introduced old age pensions, health insurance and unemployment benefit, charities became supplementary to state provision and in the first half of the twentieth century philanthropy plugged the gaps in what was sometimes called ‘a social service state’. We saw that the Guardians in the 1930s were supplementing the income of some already in receipt of Public Assistance but at a level

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
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Hymns ancient and modern
Alana Harris

‘would have sufficed’, the decision to involve over 300 parish choirs from throughout the diocese was prompted by a recognition that ‘the pope’s visit is a pastoral visit for all the people, and he’s very anxious that he’s involved with the maximum number of people in the North West’. Renditions of ‘Come down O love divine’ to the tune composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams in the early twentieth century, and ‘I am the bread of life’, a more recent composition by Suzanne Toolan in 1971, followed. This was a foretaste of the liturgical settings used in the Papal Mass the

in Faith in the family
Joe Cleary

rites or feast days, were vigorously suppressed. The upshot, Larkin argued, was that by the end of the nineteenth century a much higher percentage of the Catholic population in Ireland complied with the canonical requirements for religious practice than in any other part of Europe (with the possible exception of Poland) and continued to do so until the late twentieth century. Nevertheless, despite the widespread success of the Devotional Revolution, the idea of a single, uniform Catholicism is best avoided. Some forms of pre-​Famine Catholicism and of folk religion

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
The coronation of 1953
Norman Bonney

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/05/2013, SPi 4 What a day for England! The coronation of 1953 What a day for England and the traditional forces of the world. Shall we ever see like again? ‘Chips Cannon’, Conservative Party MP, quoted by Strong (2005: 490) Shils and Young’s (1953) interpretation of the 1953 coronation is one of the best-known sociological essays about twentieth-century Britain and the nature of social integration and conflict in a large and complex industrial society. It was subject to strong criticism shortly after its publication and has

in Monarchy, religion and the state
Contemporary witchcraft and the Lancashire witches
Joanne Pearson

woman was the witch”’, 37 and indeed this image of the witch as a free woman has maintained its hold. But whilst historical images to a certain extent inform the caricature of the witch which has continued into the present century, ‘she’ is now an altogether different character. In the second half of the twentieth century, in Wicca and feminist witchcraft, the witch has been reclaimed from her early modern association with ‘evil’. No longer allied with Satan except by those religious groups which see the work of the Devil everywhere, she instead gains her power from

in The Lancashire witches
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Laura Schwartz

better guarantee of women’s rights has a long history. As currently discussed by twenty-first-century feminists, religious leaders and world governments such concerns are, of course, the product of a post-9/11 world, but they are far from being new. In fact, the issue of women’s rights was integral to the creation of modern definitions of ‘religion’ and ‘secularism’ in the nine-teenth and early twentieth centuries, when feminists and anti

in Infidel feminism
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June Cooper

change, it continued to express concerns that children were not always better off with their own kin. These concerns were reinforced by NSPCC reports of parental cruelty and exploitation of children. In the twentieth century the DPOS and PO Societies provided widows with targeted assistance. Mothers, elder siblings and extended kin found work and apprenticeships for their children and the DPOS generally supported their endeavours as long as they were confident that it would serve the children’s best interests. The DPOS provided mothers with respite if ill and

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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David Geiringer

on changing values and beliefs, but an entirely new way of making sense of her existence. And ultimately, her eventual non-existence. This book is about the stories that people tell themselves about meaning, morality and being, and the way these stories changed in the second half of the twentieth century. Moreover, it’s about the everyday experiences that informed and were informed by these stories. Too often historians of

in The Pope and the pill
Christopher Tyerman

in the Near East but in the First World as well, notably but not exclusively in the United States of America among certain elements in fundamentalist evangelical groups, the religious Right and even constitutional conservatives. Once again, as Hume observed 250 years ago, the crusades engaged the curiosity of mankind. Defining the definers The last quarter of the twentieth century was also marked by a multifaceted debate on defining what a crusade actually was and, thus, the scope of the subject. Before Erdmann, little serious attention had been paid to the matter

in The Debate on the Crusades
Louise Fuller

18 Identity and political fragmentation in independent Ireland, 1923–83 Louise Fuller The centrality of Catholicism to Irish identity in the post-independence era has to be understood against the background of nineteenth and early twentieth century Irish history. The mobilisation of bishops, priests and Catholic laity by Daniel O’Connell from the early nineteenth century led to Catholic emancipation and from that time the Catholic community was increasingly politicised. A chief priority for the bishops throughout the nineteenth century was the securing of

in Irish Catholic identities