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directly intervene in the penitents’ lives. It would be wrong, however, to see what happened within families as part of the same coercive regime that existed within industrial and reformatory schools. Married women were not forced into giving birth. To understand why Irish mothers continued to have so many children, we need to understand how they were symbolically dominated and controlled by a culture shaped by the Catholic Church. While the strategy of silencing and hiding sex and confining it to a religious and medical discourse, which was combined with a lack of

in Are the Irish different?
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yoke of Sacerdotalism, this Grand Lodge pledges itself to recommend to the Provincial Masters, District Masters and Masters of Lodges that Female Lodges be started and extended throughout the length and breadth of England.59 The following two years’ meetings of the English Grand Lodge saw Aldwell make similar appeals championing the prominent role that women could take in fighting the Orange Order’s religious battles. At the 1883 meeting held in Manchester, the Rev. Aldwell emphasised the perception that women were peculiarly the targets of Catholic proselytism

in Women and the Orange Order
Irish-American fables of resistance

ceremonies much of its symbolic power. Perhaps more than symbols, these solemn rites continue to serve as the meeting places of body and soul, reality and imagination, our lives on earth and in the great beyond. Even at a moment in history when the Church has lost its appeal, its cultural legacy retains much that is potent and important even to its sharpest critics. In a wonderful essay, ‘Getting Here from There:  A  Writer’s Reflections on a Religious Past’, Mary Gordon, whose first novel Final Payments infuriated traditional American Catholics when it appeared in 1978

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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A witness in an age of witnesses

above by the Vatican. In the forty years of his mission as a Redemptorist preacher, he sought to breathe new life into the Christian message and to be alert to the signs of the times. Tony Flannery is no theologian, but the books and articles of this prolific religious writer have articulated the frustrations and views of a whole generation of reformists who are appalled at the dwindling number of faithful, the vocations crisis and the marginalisation of the Church in Irish society. In 2010, he co-​founded the Association of Catholic Priests (ACP) with a view to

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism

determining factor, in particular as far as Articles 40–5 on personal rights, family, education and religion were concerned: a traditional Catholic ideology informed a number of constitutional clauses on marriage, family, the role of women in society and on abortion. McQuaid’s proposal to describe the Catholic Church in the text as the only true religion was not taken up, however, and the State officially recognised the other Christian denominations present on its territory, along with the Jewish religion and ‘the other religious denominations existing in Ireland’ (explicit

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
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Membership of the Orange Order, then, not only shaped their Irishness, Scottishness, Englishness, Canadian-ness or Britishness, it also helped to focus their religious, social and emotional subjectivities – a constant refrain in all the interviews was that the Orange Order was ‘my life’.3 The story of Jean Simpson is echoed in the narratives of identity, activism, migration and diaspora explored through the lives of Orangewomen 204 WOMEN AND THE ORANGE ORDER in England, Scotland and Canada. By looking at the women’s Orange Order, this book has examined much broader

in Women and the Orange Order
Church, State and modernity in contemporary Ireland

, plentiful and disciplined clergy, rigorous devotional practices and social welfare efforts (Larkin 1984, part 2; Inglis 1998, part 2). Perhaps most significantly, it helped undermine the British State’s plans for a national system of religiously mixed, non-​denominational primary schools. Instead, such schools were eventually co-​opted and run on denominational lines, with local Catholic clergy acting as patrons for the vast majority of them and Catholic religious orders running most secondary schools (Coolahan 2003; Kieran 2008). This emergence of Catholicism as a

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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apparatuses may teach ‘know-​how’ but in forms that ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’ (Althusser 2001: 133). Althusser’s studies of ideology at work are especially pertinent to this book, which looks at how culture helped to reinforce, and also deconstruct, Catholic hegemony in Ireland while also examining how, in many ways, the Irish unconscious can be seen to be strongly influenced by the remnants of Catholic rituals and beliefs. Althusser noted that during the Middle Ages in Europe, ‘the Church’ was the ‘religious ideological State

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism

children from workhouses at the time the Irish Free State was formed. This was motivated by a wish to provide the deserving poor with institutional provision free from association with the ‘immoral’ poor, including unmarried mothers. As highlighted in chapter 1, Patrick Lankford’s running of the Cork poor law during the revolutionary years led to the establishment of the Bessborough Mother and Baby Home in Cork city. The home was run by the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary Catholic religious order, which originated from the archdiocese of Westminster. Lankford’s objective

in The end of the Irish Poor Law?
A time of hope!

world where you will not find Irish men and women, religious and lay, deeply involved in relief efforts from Outer Mongolia to South Sudan. Is the Catholic Church in Ireland viable today? The institutional Church is eternally viable, in so far as it is sacramental by nature. And it is important to recall this, since it is too easy to reduce the Church to a merely human institution dependent on human effort. The Church as the primordial sacrament, as taught by Vatican II, also works ex opero operato, that is to say, by the grace of God. This means that the weakness of

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism