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Entanglement between humanitarian work and missionary infrastructures was not unique to religious humanitarian organisations like Christian Aid. Oxfam was similarly reliant on Christian agencies to distribute relief funds; they made extensive use of the existing networks of the Salvation Army, the United Free Church of Scotland, the Baptist Missionary Society, the Worldwide Evangelisation Crusade, and even the World Council of Churches. But the organisation's secular identity meant that they were under considerably less pressure to publicly address these dimensions of their

in British civic society at the end of empire
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The Bible, race and empire in the long nineteenth century

Chosen peoples demonstrates how biblical themes, ideas and metaphors shaped narratives of racial, national and imperial identity in the long nineteenth century. Even and indeed especially amid spreading secularism, the development of professionalised science and the proclamation of ‘modernity’, biblical notions of lineage, descent and inheritance continued to inform understandings of race, nation and character at every level from the popular to the academic. Although new ideas and discoveries were challenging the historicity of the Bible, even markedly secular thinkers chose to explain their complex and radical ideas through biblical analogy. Denizens of the seething industrial cities of America and Europe championed or criticised them as New Jerusalems and Modern Babylons, while modern nation states were contrasted with or likened to Egypt, Greece and Israel. Imperial expansion prompted people to draw scriptural parallels, as European settler movements portrayed ‘new’ territories across the seas as lands of Canaan. Yet such language did not just travel in one direction. If many colonised and conquered peoples resisted the imposition of biblical narratives, they also appropriated biblical tropes to their own ends. These original case studies, by emerging and established scholars, throw new light on familiar areas such as slavery, colonialism and the missionary project, while opening up exciting cross-comparisons between race, identity and the politics of biblical translation and interpretation in South Africa, Egypt, Australia, America and Ireland. The book will be essential reading for academic, graduate and undergraduate readers in empire, race and global religion in the long nineteenth century.

The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa

53 Charles Eliot, 1905, quoted in Gregory, India and East Africa , p. 46 54 Bruce Berman and John Lonsdale, Unhappy Valley: Conflict in Kenya and Africa, Book 1: State and Class , London, James Currey, 1991, p. 34; B.M. Du Toit, The Boers in East Africa: Ethnicity and Identity

in Beyond the state
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Lights, camera and … ‘Ethical’ rule!

of Willem II's commemorative volume informed Dutch readers of ‘a magnificent Illumination in the houses [of Banjarmasin], among which those of the Resident and the Chief Ministers especially stood out’, 15 he was signalling the long reach of the House of Orange into what were then the most remote and contested corners of the Dutch imperium. Although photographic processes were brought to the Indies in the early 1840s, written descriptions remained the primary conduit of information about royal

in Photographic subjects
Unity in diversity at royal celebrations

We first encountered the photograph album of E. P. L. de Hoog, a Dutch engineer who worked in New Guinea in the late 1930s, in Chapter 3 . De Hoog's images revealed how, even in communities far from the centres of Dutch colonial power, Queen Wilhelmina's fortieth jubilee in 1938 prompted a major public festival, with crowds of participants drawn from the large Javanese and Papuan workforce at Babo. During the day, men congregated at the town's airfield to watch and participate in contests of speed, strength and endurance that were simple to

in Photographic subjects

. Moreover, as shown above, historians have recently investigated the power of archivists, editors and reviewers in ‘creating’ knowledge about China at second hand, but less effort has been made to question the reliability of first-hand materials. For those who did challenge the trustworthiness of primary sources, the work has been conducted mainly on Chinese sources. In 1993, Joanna Waley-Cohen famously contested the traditional interpretation of the Qianlong emperor's letter to King George III as a sign of China's arrogance, isolationism and resistance to progress. She

in Creating the Opium War
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People crossing the frontier, 1911–25

on the frontier. ‘The Gilbertian situation’ was that the Government of Burma was forced to pay compensation for the wrongful act of its subject across the frontier at the Meetings, although the Chinese officers usually knew the identity and whereabouts of an offender and could even produce him if they wanted. 79 The three officers therefore suggested two possible solutions. The first suggestion was to empower the Burma officers and Chinese officials at the Frontier Meetings with criminal jurisdiction. The second suggestion was to give the consul greater

in Law across imperial borders
Ritual, routine and resistance in the British Empire

Much of the world today is governed by the clock. The project to incorporate the globe within a matrix of hours, minutes and seconds demands recognition as one of the most significant manifestations of Europe's universalising will. This book is an examination of the ways that western-European and specifically British concepts and rituals of time were imposed on other cultures as a fundamental component of colonisation during the nineteenth century. It explores the intimate relationship between the colonisation of time and space in two British settler-colonies and its instrumental role in the exportation of Christianity, capitalism and modernity. Just as the history of colonialism is often written without much reference to time, the history of time is frequently narrated without due reference to colonialism. Analysing colonial constructions of 'Aboriginal time', the book talks about pre-colonial zodiacs that have been said to demonstrate an encyclopedic oral knowledge of the night sky. Temporal control was part of everyday life during the process of colonization. Discipline and the control of human movements were channelled in a temporal as well as a spatial manner. In the colony of Victoria, missions and reserves sought to confine Aboriginal people within an unseen matrix of temporal control, imposing curfews and restrictions which interrupted the regular flow of pre-colonial patterns, rituals and calendars. Christianity had brought civilised conceptions of time to the Xhosa. Reports of Sabbath observance were treated by Britain's humanitarians as official evidence of missionary success in planting the seeds of Christianity, commerce and civilization.

The Church of England and the Expansion of the Settler Empire, c. 1790–1860

When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.

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, Nationalism, and Minority Rights ( Cambridge, 2004 ), p. 59. 35 Anthony P. Cohen, ‘Peripheral vision: nationalism, national identity and the objective correlative in Scotland’, in Anthony P. Cohen (ed.), Signifying Identities: Anthropological Perspectives on Boundaries and Contested Values

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840