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The perfect storm

also lead to competing claims from the various elements as to who was the real force behind the UWC strike (Gillespie, 2004). Unionist opposition As the Sunningdale process progressed, so Unionist opposition to it also coalesced with the formation of both a political umbrella body, the United Ulster Unionist Council (or Coalition) (UUUC) and the paramilitary equivalent, the Ulster Army Council (UAC). Although the Sunningdale Communiqué, outlining the provisions for a Council of Ireland, was signed by the British and Irish governments and Executive parties on 9

in Sunningdale, the Ulster Workers’ Council strike and the struggle for democracy in Northern Ireland
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rule of law, and the pros and cons of judicial activism are but three notable areas where in principle political inquiries have much to learn from legal scholarship. Thus political scientists studying democratization appear much taken with the idea of judicial autonomy as part of the institutional architecture for ensuring the horizontal accountability of the executive – a seemingly necessary counterpart to the vertical accountability that legislatures and electorates seem only imperfectly to exact. But here (Chapter 7) McEldowney’s approach from the side of legal

in Democratization through the looking-glass

, note of a discussion on the political situation following the results of the general election 28 February 1974). However, the scale of the UUUC victory demonstrated that opposition to Sunningdale, and to power sharing, was not confined to the Loyalist working classes. A majority of Unionists, across classes, opposed Sunningdale, and many Unionists considered that the February election further undermined the Executive’s claims to democratic legitimacy. The UUUC led the Loyalist clamour for fresh Assembly elections, which, it claimed, would show that the wider

in Sunningdale, the Ulster Workers’ Council strike and the struggle for democracy in Northern Ireland

2 The collapse of power-sharing The electorate’s endorsement of the anti-Sunningdale UUUC at the February general election and the high level of bombings and shootings by the PIRA undermined the moderate political parties in Northern Ireland. During the first three months of the Labour government Merlyn Rees tried to bolster the Northern Ireland Executive while conducting a reappraisal of security policy in line with Labour’s criticisms in opposition. After the Ulster Workers’ Council (UWC) strike in May 1974 led to the collapse of power-sharing, both Rees

in No solution
The League in party politics

-party support? In terms of formal representation on committees, the movement did go quite some way towards achieving its aim of engaging opinion-formers across the political spectrum. There was certainly no denying the powerful Liberal presence. Active alongside Murray and Davies on the Executive over the years were the Liberal MPs Geoffrey Mander, Megan Lloyd George, Willoughby Dickinson and Henry Vivian, JA Spender of the Westminster Gazette, and Dorothy Gladstone, Violet Bonham-Carter and Margery Corbett Ashby, all leading figures in the Women’s Liberal Federation. Lord

in The British people and the League of Nations
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purpose at a particular time. It is suggested that ‘sovereignty’ is not identical to parliamentary sovereignty owing to the challenges posed by increased executive power, governance and globalisation. Examples of the various uses of sovereignty by members of the political elite to illustrate the way the concept is susceptible to misuse and abuse are outlined later in the chapter. The question of sovereignty also featured heavily throughout the debates surrounding the 2016 referendum on EU membership and the subsequent negotiation process. However, given the general

in The British political elite and Europe, 1959–1984

new Cabinet minister and department. Direct rule led directly to the establishment of the new office of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland modelled on the existing offices of the Secretaries of State for Scotland and Wales. The duties of the Secretary of State under direct rule The main duties of the Secretary of State were: to exercise the executive functions of government, coordinate the administrative machinery and represent Northern Ireland in the Cabinet. The Secretary of State had direct responsibility for political and constitutional matters, security

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
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A continuing institution

Dundonald House. Table 5.2 Divisions of NIO, Belfast under direct rule, 1980 Policy divisions Security policy and operations Political affairs NICS divisions Prison policy and planning Prison personnel and services Prison operational management Finance and estate management Criminal justice services Police Establishment and services Criminal justice General Information services Resource control Executive agencies Compensation Agency Forensic Science Source: Civil Service Department 1980. BDR05.indd 72 3/23/2009 4:11:20 PM The Civil Service: a continuing institution

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland

, constitutionally, was changed during our second period in very important ways. Since such matters were high on the agenda of Gibraltar’s political nation, they too must be high on our agenda for this and the next chapter. City Council and Executive Council, to 1940 As described in previous chapters, back in the early eighteenth century and prompted by British merchants resident on the Rock, the establishment of a town council modelled on conventional British lines had been a serious prospect; and later the Sanitary Commission, established in 1865, was interpreted by some leading

in Community and identity

3 The Sunningdale Council of Ireland During the 1972–75 period, the issue of cross-border co-operation in Ireland provoked much political debate. The Sunningdale Agreement of 1973 proposed a Council of Ireland comprising elected representatives from the Northern Ireland Assembly and Dáil Éireann. This Council was to have executive functions and to eventually administer certain public services in both jurisdictions in Ireland. It proved one of the most contentious issues during this time, and was strongly resisted by a large section of the unionist community

in Template for peace