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Alex Balch

6 The EU and labour migration policy-making in the UK and Spain Introduction The key questions this chapter tackles are to what extent the EU impacts on debate over policy at the national level, how this impact is mediated by domestic structures and what kinds of effects it has. In order to answer these questions, the chapter first considers what might be meant by the Europeanisation of immigration policy. This is then followed by a brief analysis of the emerging EU migration regime before the impact of the EU on national policy-making in the UK and Spain is

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Righting the record? British child migration

The case of the Middlemore Homes, 1872–1972

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Michele Langfield

Introduction Between 1869 and 1939, over 100,000 children, seen to be at risk from crime and destitution, were removed from orphanages, workhouses, families and streets of Great Britain. Many were sent to Canada and are now known as British Home Children. Others went to Australia, New Zealand and Rhodesia. Approximately fifty organisations were involved in juvenile migration

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Angela McCarthy

Between 1921 and 1965, Irish and Scottish migrants continued to seek new homes abroad. This book examines the experience of migration and settlement in North America and Australasia. It goes beyond traditional transnational and diasporic approaches, usually focused on two countries, and considers a range of destinations in which two migrant groups settled. The book aims to reclaim individual memory from within the broad field of collective memory to obtain 'glimpses into the lived interior of the migration processes'. The propaganda relating to emigration emanating from both Ireland and Scotland posited emigration as draining the life-blood of these societies. It then discusses the creation of collective experiences from a range of diverse stories, particularly in relation to the shared experiences of organising the passage, undertaking the voyage out, and arriving at Ellis Island. The depiction at the Ellis Island Museum is a positive memory formation, emphasising the fortitude of migrants. Aware that past recollections are often shaped by contemporary concerns, these memories are also analysed within the broader context in which remembering takes place. The book then examines migrant encounters with new realities in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada. The formal nature of ethnic and national identities for Irish and Scottish migrants, as exhibited by language, customs, and stereotypes, is also explored. The novelty of alleged Irish and Scottish characteristics emphasised in accounts presumably goes some way to explaining the continued interest among the children of migrants. These ongoing transnational connections also proved vital when migrants considered returning home.

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Rachel Bright

Both writers and critics of the British World have primarily focused on the white inhabitants within it; the role of non-whites and their impact remains problematic. It is only by studying the reactions to Asian migration, however, that historians can understand why, over time, the concept of empire became less compelling to the settler colonies and why alternative imagined

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Anne Ring Petersen

Mining the museum in an age of migration Migratory aesthetics and artists with a migrant background can have various points of entry into museums, galleries and collections. The genre of artists’ interventions is one of the most important in this regard because of its critical, transformative and bridge-building potential. After a brief introduction to the practice, this chapter examines interventions by three artists, Fred Wilson, Yinka Shonibare and Rina Banerjee, who all take a critical de- and postcolonial approach to the institutional structures and spaces

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Eric Richards

7 Migration in Shropshire and the English Midlands Inland beginnings Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. Precocious industrialisation came to Shropshire by the 1770s and performed its dynamic and disruptive functions in classic but localised form. Shropshire and the Midlands provide instructive examples of mobility induced by rapid economic and demographic change, redistributing and dislocating its population in certain key

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Michaela Benson

1 Explaining migration This chapter introduces the migrants, broadly outlining their sociological characteristics, and providing some initial insights into their individualized ­migration stories. In this manner, I draw attention to the migrants’ accounts of their lives before migration, to demonstrate the diverse contexts that motivated relocation and to reveal their different circumstances (familial, economic, age) at the time of migration. What was particularly striking was the homogeneous class background of my respondents in the Lot, who originated

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Children’s words, children’s worlds

Exploring the experiences of migrant children in Irelandc

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Allen White, Naomi Tyrrell, Fina Carpena-Méndez and Caitríona Ní Laoire

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 117 6 Children’s words, children’s worlds: exploring the experiences of migrant children in Ireland Allen White, Naomi Tyrrell, Fina Carpena-Méndez and Caitríona Ní Laoire Introduction There has been a rapidly expanding and developing literature on immigration into Ireland since the late 1990s (see Mac Éinrí and White, 2008). Within this it is striking that children have comprised an important yet under-recognized part of these flows and processes. The decade of the ‘pre-Crash Celtic Tiger’ (roughly 1998

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(Re)negotiating belonging

The Irish in Australia

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Patricia M. O’Connor

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 147 8 (Re)negotiating belonging: the Irish in Australia Patricia M. O’Connor Introduction Belonging is a complex concept. More than a synonym of identity, this multidimensional construct brings together ‘a personal, intimate, feeling of being “at home” in a place (place-belongingness)’ and ‘forms of socio-spatial inclusions/exclusion (politics of belonging)’ (Antonsich, 2010: 644). Belonging therefore, has both individual and collective components, strong affective underpinnings and is intrinsically spatial

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African migrants in Ireland

The negotiation of belonging and family life

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Liam Coakley

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 132 7 African migrants in Ireland: the negotiation of belonging and family life Liam Coakley Introduction The migration flows that transformed Ireland from a country of emigrants to an attractive site of immigration between 1997 and 2007 have recently been reversed. As a consequence, Ireland is again best seen as a peripheral emigrant nursery in the globalized world economy, with Irish population patterns once again moulded more significantly by the outflow of Irish-born people than by any equivalent inflow of