This book shows the impact of twenty-first-century security concerns on the way Russia is ruled. It demonstrates how President Vladimir Putin has wrestled with terrorism, immigration, media freedom, religious pluralism, and economic globalism, and argues that fears of a return to old-style authoritarianism oversimplify the complex context of contemporary Russia. Since the early 1990s, Russia has been repeatedly analysed in terms of whether it is becoming a democracy or not. This book instead focuses on the internal security issues common to many states in the early twenty-first century, and places them in the particular context of Russia, the world's largest country, still dealing with its legacy of communism and authoritarianism. Detailed analysis of the place of security in Russia's political discourse and policy making reveals nuances often missing from overarching assessments of Russia today. To characterise the Putin regime as the ‘KGB-resurgent’ is to miss vital continuities, contexts, and on-going political conflicts that make up the contemporary Russian scene. The book draws together current debates about whether Russia is a ‘normal’ country developing its own democratic and market structures, or a nascent authoritarian regime returning to the past. Drawing on extensive interviews and Russian source material, it argues that the growing security factor in Russia's domestic politics is neither ubiquitous nor unchallenged. It must be understood in the context of Russia's immediate history and the growing domestic security concerns of many states the world over.
context, insurgent urban citizenship was not only organised by civil and clerical activists but partly also by local governments (Lippert, 2005 : 383; Mancina, 2016 : 9). This is a powerful example of grassroots movements directly challenging national migration and citizenship policies and attempting to implement at a city scale what had before been limited to church premises. Furthermore, the struggle for urban inclusion can be substantially connected to civil rights movements and their seditious ‘acts of citizenship’ (Rygiel, 2010 : 41) on behalf of other
The European Union (EU) is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise of anti-EU populism and 'Brexit'. In its immediate neighbourhood it is confronted by a range of challenges and threats. This book explores the origins of the term 'Europeanisation' and the way in which its contemporary iteration-EU-isation-has become associated with the normative power of the EU. The concept of European identity is discussed, with an indication that there are different levels of identity of which a European consciousness can be just one. An overview of different mechanisms the EU uses to promote EU-isation in the neighbourhood and a discussion on the limits of conditionality when membership is not on offer is also included. The book discusses these themes in more detail. It powerfully states the salience of Russia in establishing an alternative geopolitical pole to the EU. The presence of Russia as the Eurasian Economic Union appears to play the role of being a way of preserving traditional conservative values in contrast to the uncomfortable challenges of EU-isation. The Balkans' and Turkey's reception of EU-isation is not affected by the experience of being in-betweeners. The book examines the issue of EU-isation and the relationship between values (norms), interests and identity based on various sectors/themes which cut across different neighbours and are core elements in their relations with the EU.
Throughout this book we have analysed a number of different aspects of
Russia today through the prism of security. Using the securitisation
approach developed in the sphere of international relations1 we have
considered contemporary Russian domestic policies in relation to
Chechen separatism, the media, terrorism, religion, political parties,
nationalism, migration, and the economy. Although there are of course
connections between these policy areas – some more so than others – each
chapter can be read on its
Many of the refugees who fled from the western borderlands originated
from Grodno and Vilna provinces. For the most part they were ethnically
Belarusians, who settled in Kaluga, Tula, Riazan and Orel, although their
numbers included Polish and Jewish households. In addition, Ukrainian
refugees from Volyn’ and Kholm, as well as Grodno, tended to settle in
Kursk and Voronezh. Finally, the mass migration eastwards included
German colonists – like everyone else, subjects of the tsar – who were
deported to the Russian interior.
In addition to official and semi
state’s recent policies in regard to the
media, civil society, national separatism and terrorism (Chechnya),
migration, and the economy.
In addition, Chapter 2 considers the increasing role of former and
current security service personnel in Russian politics. The growth of
people with a security background in key positions within the Russian
elite is detailed, but, although counting former security service personnel
in key positions is useful and indicative of a general trend, it can only take
us so far before the question ‘so what?’ is asked. The securitisation
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
decree of June 1992 which established the Security Council
gave it the responsibility of preparing an annual report to act as a basic
programme for the executive, including the government, ‘on questions of
domestic, foreign and military policy’. This wide remit has been used at
different times to justify Security Council engagement with a range of
issues, including health, scientific affairs, regional policy, social questions,
‘spiritual security’, migration, and a long list of economic questions (see
, its meaning varies between countries. Commentators do not always distinguish clearly between the different urban sanctuary practices in Europe and North America (e.g. Cities of Migration, 2009 ). This lack of clarity can conceal the variability and contextualised nature of sanctuary city policies and practices. Second, the concept ‘sanctuary city’ has been critiqued based on policies and practices that are highly context-particular (e.g. American Immigration Council, 2015 ). Such a critique can lose sight of the structural exclusion at the national scale that
Cities are increasingly recognised as important destinations for refugees across the world. Indeed, as the chapters of Sanctuary cities and urban struggles have shown, cities play a wide variety of roles within the politics of contemporary migration. They may be orientation points for rights claims and campaigns based on urban diversity and solidarity (Raimondi, this volume), sites of struggle over individual and collective claims to citizenship (Rogaly, this volume), legislative arenas for the incorporation of undocumented