, its meaning varies between countries. Commentators do not always distinguish clearly between the different urban sanctuary practices in Europe and North America (e.g. Cities of Migration, 2009 ). This lack of clarity can conceal the variability and contextualised nature of sanctuary city policies and practices. Second, the concept ‘sanctuary city’ has been critiqued based on policies and practices that are highly context-particular (e.g. American Immigration Council, 2015 ). Such a critique can lose sight of the structural exclusion at the national scale that
Cities are increasingly recognised as important destinations for refugees across the world. Indeed, as the chapters of Sanctuary cities and urban struggles have shown, cities play a wide variety of roles within the politics of contemporary migration. They may be orientation points for rights claims and campaigns based on urban diversity and solidarity (Raimondi, this volume), sites of struggle over individual and collective claims to citizenship (Rogaly, this volume), legislative arenas for the incorporation of undocumented
Paul Flenley and Michael Mannin
The publication of this volume comes at a time of existential crisis for the
European Union (EU). Internally it is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise
of anti-EU populism and ‘Brexit’. In its immediate neighbourhood it is
confronted by a range of challenges and threats. The Arab revolutions have
not turned into the hoped-for promise of democratisation and have instead
degenerated into civil war in the case of Libya, Syria and Yemen. The direct
impact of this on the EU is illustrated by the migration crisis which
argue that Access T.O. represents a political discourse about the inclusive nature of municipal policies. In a global context where anti-immigrant narratives and policies are on the rise, this human rights-centred policy 3 illustrates the growing involvement of municipalities in the governance of migration (see Darling and Bauder, this volume). In Canada, the power of any city is constrained by federal and provincial law. Thus, Toronto has been a pioneer in its attempt to push the boundaries of the municipal jurisdiction in order to protect the fundamental rights of
, Europeanisation and the concept of Europe act as part of their politics
and identity. However, they can be variously problematic and have different
meanings and uses. We also looked at a number of key sectors and themes
which are prominent in the conduct of relations between the EU and its
neighbours. We found that in various ways each of these highlight the
contradictions to be found in the approaches and assumptions of EUisation. Tensions in the nexus – between interests and values, for example
– emerged in areas such as energy, migration and security.
This conclusion draws
get quarters and districts of towns and cities that get taken over by one particular group… 2
Yet the picture of migration, citizenship, and rights in the city of Peterborough and its surrounding rural areas is, unsurprisingly, more complex than its reputation as a major reception city for international migrant workers, or Farage's portrayal of the consequences of this, might suggest.
In this chapter I argue, through the example of Peterborough, that a focus on
issues, policy areas and
thematic aspects which are important to the EU: resilience, security and
defence, sanctions, development policy, sustainable development goals,
human rights, migration, countering violent extremism, global governance,
The EU in the Asia-Pacific
energy and climate and cyber security to name just a few. “Human rights,
as well as women, peace and security and gender equality and women’s
empowerment” remain important issues which “will continue to be mainstreamed in all external EU policies” (Council of the European Union,
Andrijasevic, R. (2010) ‘The cross-border migration’, in Migration, Agency and Citizenship in Sex Trafficking (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), 26–56.
Arendt, H. (1973a) Men in Dark Times (New York: Harcourt Brace).
Arendt, H. (1973b) Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, new edn).
Asante, M. K. (2008) It's Bigger Than Hip Hop: The Rise of the Post-hip-hop Generation (Basingstoke: Macmillan
also for the neighbours. This approach
reflects the interplay between interests (security) and values (good governance), which is a key theme of this book. However, continuing authoritarianism in Belarus, war in Ukraine, tensions with Russia, internal political
developments in Turkey and the migration crisis would suggest that these
strategies are failing. This chapter considers the strategies adopted by the
EU in relation to its Eastern neighbours and identifies common problems
and obstacles to the EU’s approach and how these limit EU-isation.
the Eurozone since the start of the financial
crisis from 2009 onwards. Third, the migration crisis, internal insecurity
and self-doubt within the EU have resulted in an internal and external
questioning of the value and validity of the EU project itself. In turn, this
has led to the emergence of other perceptions of Europe and European
futures rather than the inevitability of EU-isation. Identification with the
EU as ‘Europe’ and as the only source of regional economic, social or strategic security for neighbour states, is challenged and historic European