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‘nests’ of Nazis, ferociously holding onto the port towns. Eighty per cent of all raids on France took place during 1944. Yet for some, bombing had been part of daily life since 1940. The study of everyday life in France during the Vichy years is a field still growing. For example, recent work by Shannon L.  Fogg, Nicole Dombrowski Risser and Julia S. Torrie is testament to a growing interest in the political dimensions of everyday life. Torrie’s work in particular shifts the discussion significantly towards civilian rather than daily life: it recognises that much of

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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back into the children’s world. Visions of future war do not seem to have sparked memorable activity, or inspired fear or anxiety. Past war On the other hand, the First World War had a strong presence in many of the oral narratives, demonstrating the powerful impact of 1914–18 during the interwar years. For children, who lacked the political, cultural or social ability or need to instrumentalise war memory, the ‘local, particular, v 56 v Expecting war parochial and familial forms’ of remembering created an understanding firmly rooted in the domestic universe.18 A

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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A conclusion

how many more to lose their home? Jacques’ death cast a long shadow over his siblings’ lives; yet bombing’s omission – until recently – from official, public and scholarly accounts of the war in France has meant that such people have been denied a space in which their trauma can be heard and their losses recognised. Édith did not seem bitter. She criticised neither v 211 v Conclusion the bombers nor the forces that have buried her brother a second time, under more politically useful versions of the national past. But to ignore this death, and the impact of the

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

financial aid.15 Despite a rhetorical obsession with national solidarity, its aid was not universal. People received it as charity, following judgements made about whether they were sufficiently deserving. Its assistance was not an entitlement. Helping the sinistrés in the aftermath of bombing became a politically charged task. As state aid was so slow, and the Secours National was hampered by bureaucracy, space opened up for others to step into. The Comité Ouvrier de Secours Immédiat (COSI, Workers’ Emergency Relief Committee) was founded in March 1942, before the advent

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

people, Sonia’s family was not bereaved by the Allied bombing; thus Allied air raids were less prominent in memory, which was dominated by other hardships. These perspectives illustrate v 204 v Friends, enemies and the wider war the way in which ordinary people experience political events: ultimately, the wellbeing of those upon whom they depend materially and emotionally shapes how such events are lived and remembered. The narrators also weighed their own experiences of bombing against those of people elsewhere. Michèle Martin (Boulogne-Billancourt) said that English

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

The TransAtlantic reconsidered brings together established experts from Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies – two fields that are closely connected in their historical and disciplinary development as well as with regard to the geographical area of their interest. Questions of methodology and boundaries of periodization tend to separate these research fields. However, in order to understand the Atlantic World and transatlantic relations today, Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies should be considered together. The scholars represented in this volume have helped to shape, re-shape, and challenge the narrative(s) of the Atlantic World and can thus (re-)evaluate its conceptual basis in view of historiographical developments and contemporary challenges. This volume thus documents and reflects on the changes within Transatlantic Studies during the last decades. New perspectives on research reconceptualize how we think about the Atlantic World. At a time when many political observers perceive a crisis in transatlantic relations, critical evaluation of past narratives and frameworks will provide an academic foundation to move forward.

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This book paints a picture of Ascham as an ‘anti-radical’ parliamentarian who used ideas of natural right to argue for obedience to authority rather than to challenge it, prioritising order over liberty and representation. Ascham’s career is placed within the context of parliamentarian politics before the regicide, and the politics of the new regime from 1649–50. Unlike

in Order and conflict
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The Puritan Revolution of mid-seventeenth-century England produced an explosion of new and important political thinking. But while due attention has been given to the most famous thinkers, Thomas Hobbes, Sir Robert Filmer and the Levellers, there are other important figures who have been relatively neglected, of whom Anthony Ascham is one. Ascham does attract a certain amount of scholarly interest

in Order and conflict
Humanity and relief in war, Britain 1870–1914

The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.

America, Europe, and the crises of the 1970s

In the twenty-first century, transatlantic relations no longer enjoy the prominence they had in both the foreign policies of the United States and of many Western European countries, as well as in the history of international relations during the second half of the twentieth century. Yet, transatlantic relations remain a focus of study by historians and political scientists, as America and the European Union still are, economically and politically (and, in the American case, militarily), two of the most powerful actors in international

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered