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Lindsey Dodd

also evolved. The March raid on Renault used a new ‘intensified system of flare illumination’. Fifteen Wellingtons dropped phosphorescent markers, lighting the factories throughout the attack.4 This raid was experimental. The new navigational aid Gee was also tested and then used in France for difficult targets such as the Gien tank park in July 1942.5 Certain changes to the tactics of bombing France were politically motivated. Despite calls from the Chief of Air Staff to bomb the ‘Free Zone’ during 1941, political chiefs refused, as Vichy France was still

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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Lindsey Dodd

‘nests’ of Nazis, ferociously holding onto the port towns. Eighty per cent of all raids on France took place during 1944. Yet for some, bombing had been part of daily life since 1940. The study of everyday life in France during the Vichy years is a field still growing. For example, recent work by Shannon L.  Fogg, Nicole Dombrowski Risser and Julia S. Torrie is testament to a growing interest in the political dimensions of everyday life. Torrie’s work in particular shifts the discussion significantly towards civilian rather than daily life: it recognises that much of

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

back into the children’s world. Visions of future war do not seem to have sparked memorable activity, or inspired fear or anxiety. Past war On the other hand, the First World War had a strong presence in many of the oral narratives, demonstrating the powerful impact of 1914–18 during the interwar years. For children, who lacked the political, cultural or social ability or need to instrumentalise war memory, the ‘local, particular, v 56 v Expecting war parochial and familial forms’ of remembering created an understanding firmly rooted in the domestic universe.18 A

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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A conclusion
Lindsey Dodd

how many more to lose their home? Jacques’ death cast a long shadow over his siblings’ lives; yet bombing’s omission – until recently – from official, public and scholarly accounts of the war in France has meant that such people have been denied a space in which their trauma can be heard and their losses recognised. Édith did not seem bitter. She criticised neither v 211 v Conclusion the bombers nor the forces that have buried her brother a second time, under more politically useful versions of the national past. But to ignore this death, and the impact of the

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

financial aid.15 Despite a rhetorical obsession with national solidarity, its aid was not universal. People received it as charity, following judgements made about whether they were sufficiently deserving. Its assistance was not an entitlement. Helping the sinistrés in the aftermath of bombing became a politically charged task. As state aid was so slow, and the Secours National was hampered by bureaucracy, space opened up for others to step into. The Comité Ouvrier de Secours Immédiat (COSI, Workers’ Emergency Relief Committee) was founded in March 1942, before the advent

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

people, Sonia’s family was not bereaved by the Allied bombing; thus Allied air raids were less prominent in memory, which was dominated by other hardships. These perspectives illustrate v 204 v Friends, enemies and the wider war the way in which ordinary people experience political events: ultimately, the wellbeing of those upon whom they depend materially and emotionally shapes how such events are lived and remembered. The narrators also weighed their own experiences of bombing against those of people elsewhere. Michèle Martin (Boulogne-Billancourt) said that English

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
E. A. Freeman and Victorian public morality
Author: Vicky Randall

This book seeks to reclaim E. A. Freeman (1823–92) as a leading Victorian historian and public moralist. Freeman was a prolific writer of history, Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford, and outspoken commentator on current affairs. His reputation declined sharply in the twentieth century, however, and the last full-scale biography was W. R. W. Stephens’ Life and Letters of Edward A. Freeman (1895). When Freeman is remembered today, it is for his six-volume History of the Norman Conquest (1867–79), celebrations of English progress, and extreme racial views.

Revisiting Freeman and drawing on previously unpublished materials, this study analyses his historical texts in relationship to the scholarly practices and intellectual preoccupations of their time. Most importantly, it draws out Thomas Arnold’s influence on Freeman’s understanding of history as a cyclical process in which the present collapsed into the past and vice versa. While Freeman repeatedly insisted on the superiority of the so-called ‘Aryans’, a deeper reading shows that he defined race in terms of culture rather than biology and articulated anxieties about decline and recapitulation. Contrasting Freeman’s volumes on Western and Eastern history, this book foregrounds religion as the central category in Freeman’s scheme of universal history. Ultimately, he conceived world-historical development as a battleground between Euro-Christendom and the Judeo-Islamic Orient and feared that the contemporary expansion of the British Empire and contact with the East would prove disastrous.

Humanity and relief in war, Britain 1870–1914
Author: Rebecca Gill

The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.

Médecins Sans Frontières, the Rwandan experience, 1982– 97

Throughout the 1990s, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was forced to face the challenges posed by the genocide of Rwandan Tutsis and a succession of major outbreaks of political violence in Rwanda and its neighbouring countries. Humanitarian workers were confronted with the execution of close to one million people, tens of thousands of casualties pouring into health centres, the flight of millions of others who had sought refuge in camps and a series of deadly epidemics. Where and in what circumstances were the MSF teams deployed? What medical and non-medical assistance were they able to deliver? Drawing on various hitherto unpublished private and public archives, this book recounts the experiences of the MSF teams working in the field. It also describes the tensions (and cooperation) between international humanitarian agencies, the crucial negotiations conducted at local, national and international level and the media campaigns. The messages communicated to the public by MSF’s teams bear witness to diverse practical, ethical and political considerations. How to react when humanitarian workers are first-hand witnesses to mass crimes? How to avoid becoming accomplices to criminal stratagems? How to deliver effective aid in situations of extreme violence?

This book is intended for humanitarian aid practitioners, students, journalists and researchers with an interest in genocide and humanitarian studies and the political sociology of international organisations.

Rebecca Gill

distant suffering and efforts at its amelioration had implications both for the domestic aspirations of British agitators and for those for whom urgent relief and intervention was advocated (though not necessarily in ways anticipated by British sympathisers). This chapter focuses on how the politics of humanity and relief reverberated in ‘progressive’ circles in Britain, including

in Calculating compassion