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actions won them more than notoriety. Iconoclasm was a way for committed reformers to scratch their itchy religious activism. It was not likely to win converts. THE RADICALISATION OF REFORM Can Scottish Protestantism’s rising mood of militancy be taken as a sign of deepening reformist commitment, separation from the old Church and formation of definably Protestant congregations?46 The evidence is inconclusive. There is one – but only one – documented example of a formally organised Protestant ‘privy kirk’ in the 1550s, in Edinburgh. If there were ‘privy kirks’ in towns

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation

so heavily laced with scripture as those intended for the godly. Thomas Wadsworth did not have such a high opinion of the congregation at St Lawrence Pountney, feeling it necessary to explain the context of a metaphor from Revelation when several other ministers did not.105 Thomas Case, on the other hand, assumed a wide familiarity with history and current affairs as well as religious doctrine when he berated Englishmen for their failure to lay the blood of Germany, Lithuania and Piedmont to heart.106 Other Bartholomeans assumed that their audiences were familiar

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
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The Scottish revolution?

the structures of power is obvious. It is not merely that Scotland’s religious and diplomatic orientations were reversed. The Congregation suspended the Queen Regent from office without having any right to do so (as neutrals pointed out to them), and concluded a treaty with a foreign power in order to secure military support against their rightful rulers. Moreover, the parliament of August 1560, which gave the Reformation its first legal basis, was a very irregular assembly. The Anglo-French treaty of Edinburgh which concluded the war in July 1560 was accompanied by a

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
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Prophets as a religious movement rather than a radical sect. Their emphasis on pneumatic inspiration over a strictly codified doctrine and rituals federated across religious, national and linguistic boundaries in an irenic attempt to reconcile Judaeo-Christian denominations into a universal Church. In so doing, their enthusiasm emancipated faith from its institutional borders and soon even from its physical walls through open-air congregations. The intense physicality of their raptures, combined with their claims to prophecy, glossolalia and thaumaturgy, thus reminded

in Enlightening enthusiasm
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life, and women, like never before, flocked to the convents and proceeded to stretch and redefine its boundaries. The vast majority of those who entered were from the middle class and were confirming the bourgeois commitment to the moral improvement of society. France and Belgium were the cradles of this rejuvenation and many of the women who helped to rebuild, reinvent or construct religious communities and congregations there would go on to play pivotal roles in the expansion of the church in Britain, Canada, the United States and Australasia. The first two

in Creating a Scottish Church

pamphlet distribution. Nonetheless their volunteering was increasingly and vitally important in maintaining their religious congregations. By the 1850s all Methodist Connexions were struggling to maintain their membership, competing with each other, with Nonconformist congregations, with a reviving established church, and with the growing number of secular attractions available in cities. For the ­Primitive Methodists and Bible Christians, who had experienced strong growth in previous decades, this was especially distressing.48 At the 1853 Primitive Methodist Conference

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism

. 134 The very existence of religious schools was seen as a threat to the unity of the Republic, though for some time to come – much to the chagrin of the anticlerical press 135 – local councils were still calling on religious congregations to staff their school. Nevertheless, from the perspective of societal secularisation, republican cohesion through secular education indicated the displacement of the values formerly binding society – as well as the ‘volonté d’extirper toute idée religieuse’ 136 – and society’s reconfiguration into a system of secular or this

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Coping with change

Gillis did, though it is unlikely that Chalmers inspired this idea, was to recruit a community of women religious to Edinburgh. When the Ursulines of Jesus, an upper-class French female congregation, arrived in 1834 they inaugurated a new era of church development by reintroducing convent life to Scotland. Crucially, their arrival installed an active female dimension in the Catholic Church and represented a radical departure from everything that Scottish Catholicism had previously known. The establishment of convents enabled the real work of church transformation to

in Creating a Scottish Church
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Church’s different branches. The alternative was a colonial Church made up of self-governing, self-financing congregations, each free to choose their own ministers and make changes to Anglican doctrines and liturgy. Though the high church model of Church expansion left room for dioceses to exercise control over their own affairs, this would go hand in hand with moves to enforce discipline and uniformity

in An Anglican British World
Open Access (free)

the main thrust of his reports, the Oblate mission in the United States was a resounding success, packing the churches in the parishes it visited to the point of having to divide the congregations. One week was assigned to married women, the next to unmarried women, and the same again for men, instead of the usual four weeks for all-comers. These people, Shinnors observed, were ‘as full of faith and fervour as if they still lived in their own homes’.7 Moreover, two of his American clerical critics, Smith and John Ryan, were the American-born sons of an Irish

in Population, providence and empire