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A typology
Benjamin J. Elton

Chapter 3 Jewish religious responses to modernity: a typology HIS BOOK ARGUES that the Chief Rabbis’ response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation, some of which I have already mentioned. I will sketch out a possible typology of those responses, so that we can place the Chief Rabbis in that context. This typology does not presume to be a final scheme, nor does it seek to deny the massive variety of responses, many of which it does not include explicitly. It merely

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
David J. Appleby

response to Anglican preachers who regularly rebuked Presbyterians by name, the farewell sermons tended to allude to the failings of their opponents within the Church by referring obliquely to crypto-papists, Arminians, misguided dupes or worldly hypocrites going through the motions of religious ritual. Ralph Venning opined that it was not only manly, but the defining mark of a Christian to hold to the true doctrine ‘which doth distinguish a true Christian from a Hypocrite and a Counterfeit’.98 Richard Baxter, like many Bartholomeans, exhorted his congregation not to

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
Alec Ryrie

actions won them more than notoriety. Iconoclasm was a way for committed reformers to scratch their itchy religious activism. It was not likely to win converts. THE RADICALISATION OF REFORM Can Scottish Protestantism’s rising mood of militancy be taken as a sign of deepening reformist commitment, separation from the old Church and formation of definably Protestant congregations?46 The evidence is inconclusive. There is one – but only one – documented example of a formally organised Protestant ‘privy kirk’ in the 1550s, in Edinburgh. If there were ‘privy kirks’ in towns

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
David J. Appleby

so heavily laced with scripture as those intended for the godly. Thomas Wadsworth did not have such a high opinion of the congregation at St Lawrence Pountney, feeling it necessary to explain the context of a metaphor from Revelation when several other ministers did not.105 Thomas Case, on the other hand, assumed a wide familiarity with history and current affairs as well as religious doctrine when he berated Englishmen for their failure to lay the blood of Germany, Lithuania and Piedmont to heart.106 Other Bartholomeans assumed that their audiences were familiar

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
Abstract only
The Scottish revolution?
Alec Ryrie

the structures of power is obvious. It is not merely that Scotland’s religious and diplomatic orientations were reversed. The Congregation suspended the Queen Regent from office without having any right to do so (as neutrals pointed out to them), and concluded a treaty with a foreign power in order to secure military support against their rightful rulers. Moreover, the parliament of August 1560, which gave the Reformation its first legal basis, was a very irregular assembly. The Anglo-French treaty of Edinburgh which concluded the war in July 1560 was accompanied by a

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
Abstract only
Lionel Laborie

Prophets as a religious movement rather than a radical sect. Their emphasis on pneumatic inspiration over a strictly codified doctrine and rituals federated across religious, national and linguistic boundaries in an irenic attempt to reconcile Judaeo-Christian denominations into a universal Church. In so doing, their enthusiasm emancipated faith from its institutional borders and soon even from its physical walls through open-air congregations. The intense physicality of their raptures, combined with their claims to prophecy, glossolalia and thaumaturgy, thus reminded

in Enlightening enthusiasm
Abstract only
S. Karly Kehoe

life, and women, like never before, flocked to the convents and proceeded to stretch and redefine its boundaries. The vast majority of those who entered were from the middle class and were confirming the bourgeois commitment to the moral improvement of society. France and Belgium were the cradles of this rejuvenation and many of the women who helped to rebuild, reinvent or construct religious communities and congregations there would go on to play pivotal roles in the expansion of the church in Britain, Canada, the United States and Australasia. The first two

in Creating a Scottish Church
Jennifer Lloyd

pamphlet distribution. Nonetheless their volunteering was increasingly and vitally important in maintaining their religious congregations. By the 1850s all Methodist Connexions were struggling to maintain their membership, competing with each other, with Nonconformist congregations, with a reviving established church, and with the growing number of secular attractions available in cities. For the ­Primitive Methodists and Bible Christians, who had experienced strong growth in previous decades, this was especially distressing.48 At the 1853 Primitive Methodist Conference

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
Brian Sudlow

. 134 The very existence of religious schools was seen as a threat to the unity of the Republic, though for some time to come – much to the chagrin of the anticlerical press 135 – local councils were still calling on religious congregations to staff their school. Nevertheless, from the perspective of societal secularisation, republican cohesion through secular education indicated the displacement of the values formerly binding society – as well as the ‘volonté d’extirper toute idée religieuse’ 136 – and society’s reconfiguration into a system of secular or this

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Coping with change
S. Karly Kehoe

Gillis did, though it is unlikely that Chalmers inspired this idea, was to recruit a community of women religious to Edinburgh. When the Ursulines of Jesus, an upper-class French female congregation, arrived in 1834 they inaugurated a new era of church development by reintroducing convent life to Scotland. Crucially, their arrival installed an active female dimension in the Catholic Church and represented a radical departure from everything that Scottish Catholicism had previously known. The establishment of convents enabled the real work of church transformation to

in Creating a Scottish Church