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Miller has suggested that the garden is a metaphor for an ideal human life, for relations between human beings, the state or the community. A garden is always an act of hope, for humans care for plants which have the potential to bring us aesthetic pleasure, but they also represent human caring because we try to control our physical surroundings to make them better.7 A garden is not simply a metaphor for, and a route to, the wholesome life, as Ruskin and other Christian moralists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries concluded, but is a framed landscape

in The factory in a garden
Open Access (free)

learning that Leo Levy had an extra two years of life. And of course – chillingly – this belated information brings the story back again to chemistry. To Primo Levi, also enslaved there, and to my father’s own connections with the German chemical industry. hH Article 116 (2) of the German Basic Law concerns the rights of descendants of those deprived of German citizenship on political, racial or religious grounds to apply for naturalisation. Now, writing in the immediate aftermath of the Brexit vote, I am compiling the documents I need to demonstrate my eligibility for

in Austerity baby
Images of female suicide bombers in the Middle East

voluntary agreement between the faction and the young person to trade life for identity’ (Harrison 2006, 1). Calling into question the widespread explanation of suicide bombing as religiously motivated, Harrison claims that, rather than religious belief, the promise of gaining a new and glorious identity as a martyr is the driving factor for mobilisation. The individual agrees to die in order ‘to promote the faction’s terrorist objectives. In return the faction endorses the volunteer’s identity as a warrior martyr’ (10). Here, Harrison underlines how this sought-​ after

in Image operations

last years of Robert Beer’s life point towards developments on a national level in that they were all memorial windows. Two that have not survived were executed at Holy Trinity Buckfastleigh, both commemorating members of the patron’s family. 10 The other two are at Abbotsham and Thorverton, and in both the iconography is tailored to the window’s memorial function. The Christian belief in life after death is expressed through

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival

become the centre of scientific and medical investigation. This can be understood in both a sociological sense (the names of the authors of the key works on degeneration are often qualified with titles as doctors, anthropologists and zoologists) and in a discursive sense: the texts appeal to the authority of naturalist theory. The potential degeneration of European society was thus not discussed as though it constituted primarily a religious, philosophical or ethical problem but as an empirically demonstrable medical, biological or physical anthropological fact.19

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle
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Victorian Parnassus on the Isle of Wight

the present. In fact, Hypatia celebrates the role of the Church in downplaying superstition and promoting moral behaviour: ‘The very ideas of family and national life – those two divine roots of the Church, severed from which she is certain to wither away into that most godless and most cruel of spectres, a religious world.’81 Kingsley’s Protestant views stood opposed to those of the converted Catholic, John Henry Newman. The two men had clashed about the ideas expressed in Hypatia more than a decade before Cameron made her photograph. Newman responded to Kingsley

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’
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protagonists. Even from the brief contributions he is allowed to make in the pre-Wende films, it would have been evident to most GDR viewers that Herr Hübner was a man whose views on life and politics clearly ran counter to received (Party) wisdom. Herr Hübner is a man of strong beliefs, but rather than place his faith in the teaching of the Socialist Unity Party he has always preferred to remain faithful to the teaching of the Protestant Church. Walter Hübner’s religious beliefs, together with the fact that he is, by temperament, a somewhat cantankerous character, created a

in Taking the long view
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Education Lionel Jospin reinstated the students – a decision later upheld by the Conseil d’État, which ruled that wearing religious insignia did not per se constitute an act of proselytism and therefore did not contradict French laws on laïcité. Instead it found the headmaster at fault for not respecting the young women’s right to profess their religious faith, a right guaranteed by the Republic. The subject resurfaced in 1994 when the Education Minister François Bayrou – a member of the centre-right Édouard Balladur government elected the previous year – issued a

in Representing ethnicity in contemporary French visual culture

as it goes but it also gets in the way of understanding the real meaning of technology and what it might actually tell us about who we are as human beings on this earth: Technology is therefore no mere means. Technology is a way of revealing [added emphasis]. If we give heed to this, then another whole realm for the essence of technology will open up to us. It is the realm of revealing, i.e., of truth.6 Prominent later thinkers voiced other, more direct concerns about the impact of technology on human life. In a series of lectures published in the aftermath of the

in The extended self
Open Access (free)

Cult of Single Blessedness affirmed the vocational life of unmarried women. Celibacy was perceived by some as a healthy choice, as well as, in religious discourses, a moral one. In particular, the good works done by single women, free from the demands of marriage and motherhood, contributed to their promotion as admirable beings: [ 206 ] Antebellum culture correlated goodness with usefulness, and usefulness with happiness … Noble work of high purpose provided the only meaningful satisfaction in life … Single blessedness, then, assured unmarried women eternal grace

in Austerity baby