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, meant that in a sense Ireland had skipped the slow process of modernity, which involved the painstaking build-­up of a manufacturing base, and instead had moved to the postmodern model of financial services, investment and a seemingly never-­ending property bubble. However, this affluence proved illusory, and the sudden dramatic bursting of the property and building bubble meant that prosperity has been followed by austerity and the erstwhile Tiger is now a very bedraggled and scraggy metaphorical animal. This seismic shift has an exact date, 29 September 2008, when

in From prosperity to austerity
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The cultural unconscious of the Celtic Tiger in the writings of Paul Howard

Dirtbag, Adrian Mole: The Cappuccino Years, PS, I Love You and The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-­time respectively. Mr S and the Secrets of Andorra’s Box (Howard 2008c) deals with his new job as the rugby coach of the Andorran national team and also with his attempts to cope with separation from Sorcha and Honor while NAMA Mia (Howard 2011) conflates the National Asset Management Agency and the Abba song ‘Mama Mia’, and, like his 2012 book The Shelbourne Ultimatum, it deals with an Ireland suffering the effects of austerity in the wake of the Celtic Tiger

in From prosperity to austerity

social media. Along with the Occupy movement in Ireland we have seen the rise of a shared aesthetic, with temporary pop-up spaces, free culture, hacktivism, Twitter and Facebook campaigns, celebrated for having at last moved beyond the Cold War ideological dichotomy, dispensing with class terminology, putting to rest the battles over production and instead focusing on all things digital, post-material, creative and self-expressive. Years after the bank bailout with no serious challenge mounted against austerity but a constant daily flow of radical social media

in Ireland under austerity
Monsters of post-Celtic Tiger Ireland

bankrupted the nascent republic and effectively mortgaged the future generations of Haiti in perpetuity. Anyone who wishes to imagine what state the former Republic of Ireland will be in one hundred years from now may have much to learn from the state of Haiti today. Zombie precarity and vampire plutonomy In 2010, the Irish government negotiated the IMF–EU bail-­out and recommended a four-­year National Recovery plan and a programmes of ‘austerity budgets’ which make huge cuts in social welfare rather than taxing the richest 1 per cent of the population who own 34 per cent

in From prosperity to austerity

, emigration, workers and trade unions under attack – and still a near consensus that austerity was and is the only course available to Ireland. Parties that promulgate fiscal contractionary policies – either through ideological commitment (Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael) or through resignation (Labour) – still maintain majority support. Political and economic commentary, while describing the events, fail to relate cause and effect and, so, rarely pose a critique that challenges the orthodoxy. Alternative perspectives, no matter how mainstream they may be in other economies, are

in Ireland under austerity
The Catholic Church during the Celtic Tiger Years

perceived wrongdoings. In fact, the whole awareness of sin is very hazy in a society that has shed the shackles of sexual repression and is intent on pursuing pleasure at every opportunity. The Celtic Tiger is not solely responsible for this change in attitude, but it certainly contributed to the development of a groupthink that equated financial enrichment with happiness. Now that austerity has replaced prosperity, there is uncertainty about where to turn for comfort and reassurance. Maybe it is time to return to the original notion of Christian community advocated by

in From prosperity to austerity

countries that cannot have a simultaneous devaluation of the domestic currency. The EU and the ECB have been much larger lenders than the IMF, insisting on punitive interest rates, the imposition of harsh austerity, and the adoption of further liberalization, in the name of protecting the Euro. The true defenders of neo-liberal orthodoxy in the Eurozone crisis have been the EU and the ECB, not the IMF.2 Radical critiques of the EU as a tool of corporate power now appear to have a much better purchase on reality than the benign perspective long cherished by the Irish

in Ireland under austerity

-narrative of British politics shifted to crisis and austerity. In 2010, New Labour was replaced by a Coalition Government of Conservative and Liberal Democrats, in which the former were dominant. This election outcome removed a key institutional relationship that development campaigners had come to rely on: a ruling party that shared many of the development norms of the campaign organisations themselves. Nevertheless, in 2013 a major national development campaign coalition was once again devised: the Enough Food If campaign (EFIF). This chapter

in Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century

Many assume that the Celtic Tiger was the root cause of the decline of religion as a hegemonic force in Irish society. Careful examination of data does not support this analysis, and this chapter argues that what has in effect occurred is that the Irish religious market has evolved from being monopolistic to becoming pluralist structure. Religious market theories argue that liberal and neo-liberal economic theories have their religious counterparts. Theorists thus defend the view that religious choice in a pluralist society is regulated by rational decisions based on supply and demand, competition and consumer needs. Religious products however have specificities, and faith implies that choice has an irrational dimension. Maignant analyses the nature of today's religious market in Ireland from the perspective of the Celtic Tiger values as echoed by religious market theories and by the post-secularization theory. The fusion of market terminology, market research analysis and objective accounting of the data offers a perspective on the place of the Church in Ireland that is highly original and innovative. It also offers a more objective perspective on the current state, and future trajectory, of the Catholic Church in a contemporary Irish context.

in From prosperity to austerity
A tale of two traumas

The demise of the Celtic Tiger has shattered a set of assumptions regarding the identity of the ‘New Ireland’, and this chapter explores how the Child Sexual Abuse crisis has had a similar shattering effect effect on the role and perception of the Irish Catholic Church. Geary explores the profound consequences of this crisis for the sense of Irish identity and the place of religion in Irish life. The process of secularization and the demise of folk religion were already under way, but the abuse crisis both hastened the change and demolished beliefs of clergy and many lay people regarding the nature and role of the Church. Making use of Fowler's stages of faith as an analytical lens, the chapter suggests that Ireland, until the end of the twentieth century, was at ‘stage 3’ of faith development, a period that is characterised by conformity. That social conformity has shifted to a different Ireland, with different values. There has been a shift of interest by some people to ‘spirituality’ rather than ‘religious practice’; this is one element in a transition to a smaller, less socially powerful church, as it requires a new religious language and identity and church leaders are not prepared for this.

in From prosperity to austerity