1950s was the relatively small number of refugees who lived in these
Länder of the former French Occupation Zone.70
Refugees and expellees in post-war GermanyPolitical integration
The decline of the BHE
As noted in chapter 4, the remarkable electoral success achieved by
the newly established refugee party, the BHE, at the State Election
in Schleswig-Holstein in July 1950 had a profound effect on West
Germany’s fledgling political system and by the end of 1951 the
BHE was represented in the state assemblies of
home front following the privations of the turnip winter of 1916–17
but also of the significant role that women could play in mobilising
that support. Stibbe has argued that in the second half of the war
nationalist men expended considerable effort in trying to mobilise
patriotic women for their cause, and the German Fatherland Party,
founded on 2 September 1917 in response to a Reichstag resolution
for a peace without annexations, could boast a one-third share of
female members, the highest proportion of any Germanpolitical
party.176 This is a clear sign of the
would attract most viewers, including those in West Germany who
could also receive GDR programmes. Another reason for this choice
of time could have been that the most important, and therefore most
dangerous, West Germanpolitical programmes were also broadcast
on a Monday evening (Ludes, 1990: 279), which meant that von
Schnitzler could kill two birds with one stone. Nonetheless, it could
be argued that he did not attract as many viewers as his Western colleagues, for a number of reasons which will be discussed below.
Gerlof calls the programme
while the Americans were in practice more interventionist than they
were prepared to concede publicly.27 The key issue was accommodation. The Occupying Authorities, supported by the Germanpolitical
elites at regional level, were determined to avoid, wherever possible,
the long-term accommodation of refugees in camps because, apart
from humanitarian considerations, they believed that the presence
of a large number of economically deprived people in a confined
space provided the ideal conditions for outbreaks of political
radicalisation. However, some local
Germany's approach to tackling the financial and Eurozone crises was central to the entire issue. However, analyses have tended to focus almost entirely on the policy choices taken by Angela Merkel's centre right Christian Democratic Party. Surprisingly little attention has been given to the policy positions developed and adopted by Germany's political parties on the centre left, even though their policies have been those of a junior coalition partner and are potentially those of a future governing party. On
Germany in American post-war International Relations
integrate, people need to be able to talk to each other. To this end, a common language has to be established. 45 As the émigrés arrived in a country where English was the official language, communication required more effort from them. They had to learn the language and ensure the translation of their Germanpolitical thought.
For many of these scholars, this meant that they had to demonstrate proficiency in a language they had not studied profoundly prior to their emigration. German humanistic secondary education required the study of Latin and ancient Greek, but it
Health and medicine in the planning and politics of British Tanganyika
the discourse on health rather late, only in the
1940s. Thus the third relationship ‘health as goal of
development’ cannot have been conceptualised earlier. The
other two usages, however, can be found already in Germanpolitical
and medical discussions on East Africa long before the First World
Medical doctors on
‘development’ in German East
action, the nature of its national interest, and the importance of
working within multilateral structures and organisations to realise it.
Where? The geographical limits
German politicians did not directly address the question of what Germany
would deploy the Bundeswehr internationally for. The question of where
Germany should concentrate its eﬀorts was also left open.
A realist would expect the transformed Germany to intervene in conﬂicts
where substantial direct Germanpolitical, economic, or security interests were
at stake. Germany’s geographic
, resulting in frequent territorial
disputes between MI5 and MI6.
MI5 was established to combat the threat of German espionage. The
focus on Germany as a potential and real enemy remained a major concern
of the organisation until 1945, though during the inter-war period it was
matched by concern about the ‘red menace’. These twin preoccupations
help to explain the surveillance of so many German ‘political’ refugees after
1933, most of whom were targeted as ‘Communists and suspected Communists’. The Security Service only rather belatedly recognised the threat
40 Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 344.
41 See, for example, Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, pp. 39–44, 59;
Weindling, Health, Race and GermanPolitics, pp. 474–8.
42 Guyer, ‘Sterilization’, p. 34.
43 Barrows, in ‘Discussion on provision for the feeble-minded’, p. 402; also see
44 Keene, ‘The genesis of the defective’, p. 413.
45 Sanger, The Pivot of Civilization, p. 112.
46 E.E. Southard, ‘The feeble-minded as subjects of research in efficiency’, in
Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Correction (Chicago