See Grove, ‘Conservation and colonial
Cobban, The Social Interpretation of the
French Revolution , pp. 100–1. See also the allusions
made to illegal woodgathering in the 1830s by HonorédeBalzac
in Les paysans and in his letter to P. S. B. Gavault, quoted
in J. Scott, Weapons
, when Döblin was admitted into
the canon of world literature, taking his place alongside Joyce and Dos
Passos, it was not as a realist or naturalist but as a moderniser and
modernist.12 Hence in German literary circles Döblin is rarely compared
to his French literary forebears Gustave Flaubert, HonorédeBalzac and
Émile Zola. This is curious, all the more so since Döblin proclaimed once
in 1924 that the modern ‘European-American world’ was on the cusp of
a naturalist age.13
Among French literary historians, German naturalism is often regarded
as an imitation of
social critique: the artículos de costumbres
The articles presented in this anthology are among the most widely
read and studied of Larra’s works, and their common feature is that
they belong to the journalistic sub-genre known as artículos de
costumbres. These essays or sketches of customs and manners were
very common in nineteenth-century Europe. The central idea was
to capture scenes, places or human types characteristic of contemporary society, either as isolated sketches of urban characters
published in newspapers (the early articles by HonorédeBalzac,
quintessentially Gallic discourses from nineteenth-century literature and
visual art. Following these traditions, he depicts country-dwellers in
paradoxical fashion, as both simple-minded brutes and as virtuous,
hard-working role models.
The former view, exemplified by HonorédeBalzac’s
Les Paysans (1845) and Emile Zola’s La Terre (1887),
applies particularly to Angèle’s father Clarius, who menaces
Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction
, American, and European authors, including HonorédeBalzac, Charlotte Brontë, William Carleton, Cervantes, James Fenimore Cooper, Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Edgar Allan Poe, Walter Scott, and Jonathan Swift. 76
The narratological manifestations of Roche's bibliographic everywhereness
The remarkable material circulation of Roche's novels indicates the very real advantages to be gleaned from loyalty to Lane, even if Roche's motives for publishing with Minerva remain unclear. We may not currently know how much
42 Mitchell, What Do Pictures Want? , p. 157.
43 Freud, The Uncanny , p. 157.
44 HonorédeBalzac, The Wild Ass’s Skin , trans. Herbert J. Hunt (London: Penguin, 1977).
45 Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four , p. 173.
46 George Orwell, ‘Just Junk – But Who Could Resist It?’, in Complete Works , ed. Peter Davison (London: Secker & Warburg, 1998), Vol. 18, pp. 17–19.
47 Orwell, ‘Just Junk’, p. 18.
48 Alan Shadwick, ‘Collector’s piece
Fouinet, ‘ Un voyage en omnibus ’, p. 69. Italics in the original.
21 Lauster, Sketches of the Nineteenth Century , p. 9.
22 HonorédeBalzac, ‘ Histoire et physiologie des Boulevards de Paris. De la Madeleine à la Bastille ’, in Le Diable à Paris , 2 vols (Paris: Hetzel, 1845–46), vol. 2 (1846), p. 92.
23 Paris en omnibus. Guide familier dans le Paris de 1869 (Paris Ancien et Paris Nouveau) par un simple voyageur en omnibus, en chemin de ceinture et en bateau mouche indiquant les rencontres et les correspondances de ces divers modes de locomotion dans
suivi de Le chef-d’œuvre inconnu par HonorédeBalzac (Paris: Les Éditions de
Minuit, 1985), pp. 22–3.
6 Kruse, ‘Fleisch werden – Fleisch malen’, p. 322.
7 Ibid., pp. 315–18; on early Christian notions of incarnation, Georges Didi-Huberman, ‘La couleur de la chair ou le paradoxe de Tertullien’, Nouvelle revue de la
psychanalyse, 35 (1987), 9–49, Special issue: Le champ visuel.
8 Cennino d’Andrea Cennini, The Craftmen’s Handbook: The Italian ‘Il libro dell’Arte’,
trans. Daniel V. Thomspon, Jnr. [1933 Yale University Press] (New York: Dover