This study concerns the history of Gibraltar following its military conquest in 1704, after which sovereignty of the territory was transferred from Spain to Britain and it became a British fortress and colony. It focuses on the civilian population and shows how a substantial multi-ethnic Roman Catholic and Jewish population, derived mainly from the littorals and islands of the Mediterranean, became settled in British Gibraltar, much of it in defiance of British efforts to control entry and restrict residence. To explain why that population arrived and took root, the book also analyses the changing fortunes of the local economy over 300 years, the occupational opportunities presented and the variable living standards which resulted. Although for most of the period the British authorities primarily regarded Gibraltar as a fortress and governed it autocratically, they also began to incorporate civilians into administration, until it eventually, though still a British Overseas Territory, became internally a self-governing civilian democracy. The principal intention of the study is to show how the demographic, economic, administrative and political history of Gibraltar accounts for the construction, eventually and problematically, of a distinctive ‘Gibraltarian’ identity. With Gibraltar's political future still today contested, this is a matter of considerable political importance.
This book recognises the importance of the playwright and The Spanish Tragedy for the development of early modern theatre and beyond. It aims to familiarise readers with the play which, literally, set the stage for the Elizabethan revenge tragedy boom. The book revisits theories of revenge, and examines the play's latest editions, stage productions and screenplay adaptations. It takes the reader on a rewarding journey from Kyd's Proserpine to William Shakespeare's Prospero and brings personal editorial accounts on what it means to edit The Spanish Tragedy in the third millennium. The book argues that the lasting position of The Spanish Tragedy in the Low Countries is of interest from a politico-religious perspective. It advocates a shift in the critical approaches to The Spanish Tragedy, away 'from debating whether the play reflects Habsburg Spain or Renaissance Italy to considering how it portrays Mediterranean culture in relation to early modern England and its desire to play a role in the European colonial expansion'. The book further argues that The Spanish Tragedy, which has been regarded primarily as a 'blood and guts' revenge tragedy, was actually written to promote the Protestant politico-religious ethos, represented by Leicester, against Catholic Babylon/Spain under Philip II. Kyd combines aspects of the anti-Leicester tradition with elements of the Spanish Black Legend as expressed in Antonio Pérez's Las Relaciones in order to depict Spain under Philip II as the evil enemy of Protestant England.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.
Outlines of the Mediterranean
‘The Mediterranean speaks with many voices; it is a sum of individual histories’, writes Fernand Braudel in his magnum opus on the Mediterranean world of the later sixteenth century (1: 13), a work that generously allows us to hear many voices. My strategy in this book consists in part of being attentive to writing and speaking in the early modern Mediterranean world, to how people characterised the modalities of relationships and communicability of that world across ethnic, religious, geographical, linguistic and racial
Although a number of its themes will be familiar, I believe that this book presents a quite different Mediterranean from those seen before, one that adds new or lesser-known faces, writings and voices along with an ensemble of perhaps unsettling perspectives with regard to method, approach and conceptual topography. The book project could no doubt have been carried out in many other ways, focusing more on other places, other texts, other problems and questions. In fact, a fair number of related studies of my own in the form of presentations, essays, etc. were
The management of migration between care and control
Tens of thousands of migrants and
refugees stranded in camps in Greece and in Calais, shipwrecks and
deaths in the Mediterranean, fences and walls across the Balkans,
hotspots along the European Union (EU) southern borders, increasing
controls within the Schengen space, military-humanitarian naval
operations, the EU–Turkey migrant deal, NGOs and activists denouncing
use to the PSOE during the remainder of its period
This chapter is concerned with the evolution of foreign and security policy
under the PSOE between 1982 and 1996 and will consider three areas viewed by
the PSOE leadership as being key elements in Spain’s return to the international
• European integration;
• defence and security;
• the upgrading of Spain’s traditional links with the Mediterranean and Latin
It will be argued that European integration was of considerable significance, firstly, in the defence and security policy
The Colonial Police Service was created in 1936 in order to standardise all imperial police forces and mould colonial policing to the British model. This book is the first comprehensive study of the colonial police and their complex role within Britain's long and turbulent process of decolonisation, a time characterised by political upheaval and colonial conflict. The emphasis is on policing conflict rather than the application of British law and crime-fighting in an imperial context. The overlapping between the Irish-colonial and Metropolitan-English policing models was noticeable throughout the British Empire. The policing of Canada where English and Irish styles of policing intermingled, in particular after 1867 when Canada became a nation in its own right with the passage of the British North America Act. Inadequate provisions for the localisation of gazetted officers within most colonies prior to independence led to many expatriates being asked to remain in situ. Post-war reform included the development of police special branches, responsible for both internal and external security. From the British Caribbean to the Middle East, the Mediterranean to British Colonial Africa and on to Southeast Asia, colonial police forces struggled with the unrest and conflict that stemmed from Britain's withdrawal from its empire. A considerable number of them never returned to Britain, settling predominantly in Kenya, South Africa, Australia and Canada. Policing the immediate postcolonial state relied on traditional colonial methods. The case of the Sierra Leone Police is revealing in a contemporary context.
the company’s operations saw new lines opened to
steam first in the Mediterranean, then east of Suez, thereby increasing
the mileage covered and the tonnage at work and creating the
infrastructure needed for expansion. The three MDs – Willcox,
Anderson and Carleton – had a clear strategy: first, expansion was
to be supported by mail contracts; and, second, to aim for monopoly. The
and foreign rule. The administration
that Psamtek put in place relied on the established elite, for both central and
local control, which would have been particularly important in more distant
regions such as the Thebaid. Hereditary claims to office were still important
as they had been in previous periods.
Later in the Dynasty there were marked changes in organisational structures
to better control state finances and to reform the taxation system. With the
expansion of trade, into the western Mediterranean and beyond, customs duties
were increasingly being levied