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Craig Taylor

(c.1464–1470) Source: F. W. D. Brie (ed.), Brut, or the Chronicles of England , Early English Text Society, original series, 136, London, 1908, pp. 500–1. Language: Middle English The only English fifteenth-century chronicle to offer anything more than a passing reference to Joan of Arc was one contination of the Brut chronicle, probably composed

in Joan of Arc
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Anthony Musson and Edward Powell

modernised version of the Middle English where appropriate, attention is nevertheless drawn specifically to the languages of the originals. The languages of law and government were predominantly Latin and Anglo-Norman French, though the technical vocabulary and discourse deployed in the law courts gave rise to a discernible branch of the latter known as ‘law French’. Some of the documents included, however

in Crime, Law and Society in the Later Middle Ages
Deborah Youngs

, the proper clothing and a recommendation for controlling the passions. Personal daily plans, emphasising routine and regime, were compiled for young English nobles, while more general texts were available in Middle English for apprentices and servants. Instruction could be found for the middle-class urban boy in The childe of Bristowe and The merchant and his son , while How the good wife

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
Socio-cultural considerations of intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

5239–41, cited in Matejovski, Motiv des Wahnsinns , 231, 232. 100 Matthias Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsch Taschenwörterbuch (Stuttgart: Hirzel, 38th edn, 1992), s.v. vriunt. 101 Billington, A Social History of the Fool , 4; Exeter College, Oxford, MS 42, fol. 12r. 102 Billington, A Social History of the Fool , 10 for modern English, 126n17 for Middle English transcription of Bodleian Library MS Laud. 683, lines 41–4; cf. ‘The Order of Fools’, in Early English Poetry, Ballads, and Popular

in Fools and idiots?
The power of the word
Gemma Allen

; Thomas Wilson deemed such appropriations ‘ynkehorne termes’.94 Anne reveals her own allegiance in this debate by using Old and Middle English words, as well as colloquialisms, to give an authentically ‘English’ feel to her translation. Parker’s dedicatory letter reveals a contemporary recognition of Anne’s stance, by stating that her translation has ‘defended the good fame and estimation of your owne native tongue, shewing it so able to contend with a worke originally written in the most praised speache’.95 Anne thus turns to words with Old English origins when

in The Cooke sisters
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Deborah Youngs

of youth and old age – physical excellence and a rational outlook – but none of their excesses and defects. In Giles of Rome’s De regimine principum this stage is described (according to the fourteenth-century Middle English translation of John Trevisa) as ‘mene bytwene bothe’. 13 This idea of balance, of a moral mean, underscored the sense

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
Patrick Chaplin

the Roman pilum or, later, the pike and lance. The Oxford English Dictionary reinforces Blair’s view, referring to a ‘dart’ as ‘A pointed missile weapon thrown by the hand; a light spear or javelin; also applied to pointed missiles in general, including arrows, etc.’, and cites as its earliest reference words spoken by Guy of Warwick, the eponymous hero of a number of Middle English romances, ‘Launces, swerdes, and dartes’ as c. 1314.24 A weapon known as a ‘dart’ or ‘darte’ existed in the sixteenth century, and references to King Henry VIII playing darts have led to

in Darts in England, 1900–39
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Maurice Keen

What is said here owes a substantial debt to Peter Coss’s illuminating article, ‘Aspects of cultural diffusion’. 24 The text is printed in Middle English Verse Romances , ed. Sands, pp. 249–78. 25 Boke of Noblesse , p. 77. The Boke

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
Paul Cavill

, 1980), pp. 22–5. Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/JO/1/1; D.  K.  Hodnett, W.  P.  White and E. Jeffries Davis, ‘The manuscripts of the Modus tenendi parliamentum’, EHR, 34 (1919), 212–13. V. F. Snow, Parliament in Elizabethan England: John Hooker’s Order and Usage (New Haven, CT, and London, 1977), pp. 76–110. Selected Readings on Magna Carta, ed. Baker, pp. 100, 102. G. O. Sayles, ‘A fifteenth-century law reading in English’, Law Quarterly Review, 96 (1980), 571; A Middle English Statute-Book. Part I: Statuta Antiqua, ed. C. Fennell (Middle English Texts, 44, 2011

in Writing the history of parliament in Tudor and early Stuart England
The monastic roots of affective piety
Lauren Mancia

laity, see Mary Agnes Edsall, ‘From “Companion to the Novitiate” to “Companion to the Devout Life”: San Marino, Huntington Library, ms HM 744 and Monastic Anthologies of the Twelfth-Century Reform’, in Nicole R. Rice (ed.), Middle English Religious Writing in Practice: Texts, Readers, and Transformations (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 115–48. 135 Giraud, Spiritualité et histoire des textes , pp. 227–79, 471–2. 136 The manuscript contains only chapters 1–24 of the Manuale ; see Rouen, BM, ms. A528 (555), fols 40vb

in Emotional monasticism