Source: F. W. D. Brie (ed.),
Brut, or the Chronicles of England , Early English Text
Society, original series, 136, London, 1908, pp. 500–1.
The only English fifteenth-century
chronicle to offer anything more than a passing reference to Joan of Arc
was one contination of the Brut chronicle, probably composed
modernised version of the MiddleEnglish where appropriate, attention is
nevertheless drawn specifically to the languages of the originals. The
languages of law and government were predominantly Latin and
Anglo-Norman French, though the technical vocabulary and discourse
deployed in the law courts gave rise to a discernible branch of the
latter known as ‘law French’. Some of the documents
, the proper clothing and a
recommendation for controlling the passions. Personal daily plans,
emphasising routine and regime, were compiled for young English nobles,
while more general texts were available in MiddleEnglish for
apprentices and servants. Instruction could be found for the
middle-class urban boy in The childe of Bristowe and The
merchant and his son , while How the good wife
Socio-cultural considerations of intellectual disability
5239–41, cited in Matejovski, Motiv des Wahnsinns , 231, 232.
100 Matthias Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsch Taschenwörterbuch (Stuttgart: Hirzel, 38th edn, 1992), s.v. vriunt.
101 Billington, A Social History of the Fool , 4; Exeter College, Oxford, MS 42, fol. 12r.
102 Billington, A Social History of the Fool , 10 for modern English, 126n17 for MiddleEnglish transcription of Bodleian Library MS Laud. 683, lines 41–4; cf. ‘The Order of Fools’, in Early English Poetry, Ballads, and Popular
Thomas Wilson deemed such appropriations ‘ynkehorne termes’.94
Anne reveals her own allegiance in this debate by using Old and MiddleEnglish words, as well as colloquialisms, to give an authentically ‘English’ feel
to her translation. Parker’s dedicatory letter reveals a contemporary recognition
of Anne’s stance, by stating that her translation has ‘defended the good fame
and estimation of your owne native tongue, shewing it so able to contend with
a worke originally written in the most praised speache’.95 Anne thus turns to
words with Old English origins when
of youth and old age – physical
excellence and a rational outlook – but none of their excesses and
defects. In Giles of Rome’s De
principum this stage is described (according to the
fourteenth-century MiddleEnglish translation of John Trevisa) as
‘mene bytwene bothe’. 13
This idea of balance, of a moral mean, underscored the
Roman pilum or, later, the pike and lance. The Oxford English Dictionary
reinforces Blair’s view, referring to a ‘dart’ as ‘A pointed missile weapon
thrown by the hand; a light spear or javelin; also applied to pointed missiles
in general, including arrows, etc.’, and cites as its earliest reference words
spoken by Guy of Warwick, the eponymous hero of a number of MiddleEnglish romances, ‘Launces, swerdes, and dartes’ as c. 1314.24
A weapon known as a ‘dart’ or ‘darte’ existed in the sixteenth century,
and references to King Henry VIII playing darts have led to
What is said here owes a substantial debt to
Peter Coss’s illuminating article, ‘Aspects of cultural
The text is printed in MiddleEnglish Verse
Romances , ed. Sands, pp. 249–78.
Boke of Noblesse , p. 77. The Boke
1980), pp. 22–5.
Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/JO/1/1; D. K. Hodnett, W. P. White and
E. Jeffries Davis, ‘The manuscripts of the Modus tenendi parliamentum’, EHR, 34
V. F. Snow, Parliament in Elizabethan England: John Hooker’s Order and Usage
(New Haven, CT, and London, 1977), pp. 76–110.
Selected Readings on Magna Carta, ed. Baker, pp. 100, 102.
G. O. Sayles, ‘A fifteenth-century law reading in English’, Law Quarterly Review,
96 (1980), 571; A MiddleEnglish Statute-Book. Part I: Statuta Antiqua, ed.
C. Fennell (MiddleEnglish Texts, 44, 2011
laity, see Mary Agnes Edsall, ‘From “Companion to the Novitiate” to “Companion to the Devout Life”: San Marino, Huntington Library, ms HM 744 and Monastic Anthologies of the Twelfth-Century Reform’, in Nicole R. Rice (ed.), MiddleEnglish Religious Writing in Practice: Texts, Readers, and Transformations (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 115–48.
135 Giraud, Spiritualité et histoire des textes , pp. 227–79, 471–2.
136 The manuscript contains only chapters 1–24 of the Manuale ; see Rouen, BM, ms. A528 (555), fols 40vb