target literature)” (“Laws,” 54).
Not surprisingly, given the terminology of the definition, to date these
ideas about literary interference have been explored primarily with reference to inter-cultural transfer and influence, such as conceptualizing, for
example, the impact that a hegemonic culture can have on the cultural
productions of a less powerful culture, as in comparatists’ recent discussions of the disproportionate influence of the English-language literary
system on the literary systems of other nations and peoples (e.g., Moretti,
“Conjectures”; and Moretti
undertaking would only be possible with an
army of researchers, perhaps utilising the statistical methodology of
Franco Moretti’s Graphs, Maps, Trees.10 Selection is necessary, so it is the
novels that are most demonstrative of particular types of closure, rather
than ones that use biblical iconography or geological metaphor, that are
included. Moreover, the novel is such a fertile form that it is not feasible
to assert that narrative fiction changed direction in this period.
Nonetheless, the novels selected show that these new forms were not
hidden away in experimental
romances of Maryan, it is possible to draw some general conclusions
about the kinds of narrative that drew large readerships. If ‘high’ literature
is characterised by a self-conscious will to seek new forms, to question
and reinvent the relationship between language and experience, popular
literature seeks to provide reliable pleasures, both cognitive and affective,
and thus observes the norms established by previous successes even as it
plays new variations on existing themes and narrative chords. As Franco
Moretti suggests, the history of popular literature is closer
Poems, p. 201.
32 Carolyn Steedman, ‘The Poetry of It (Writing History)’, Angelika Bammer and RuthEllen Joeres (eds), The Future of Scholarly Writing. Critical Interventions, Palgrave
Macmillan, New York NY, 2015, pp. 215–226.
33 ‘Historical thought was an essential element of almost every poem Auden wrote in 1955’.
Edward Mendelson, Later Auden, Faber and Faber, London, 1999, pp. 390–392.
34 The most succinct and resonant account of these processes, of heart and mind and
writing, remains Franco Moretti’s Way of the World. The Bildungsroman in European
his subordinate position as a petty bourgeois professional, but it
initiated a long line of haughty aristocratic bloodsuckers, tinged with
ancient and decadent grandeur. 24 Though in Polidori and Varney and Le Fanu, the
vampire crosses from the villages of Middle Europe to be invited in over
the threshold of the polite drawing room, in Stoker’s
Dracula he truly enters modern urban life. 25 Confusingly, as Moretti
The economics of salvation in Dracula and the Twilight Saga
Jennifer H Williams
famously describes in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism : a faith that would regard Carlisle’s good
deeds in the world as indirect evidence of an otherworldly
election’ (pp. 74–5). For a contrasting account of
vampires and the Protestant work ethic, see Franco Moretti’s
‘A Capital Dracula ’, pp. 90–104.
cohere as an “organic” process with a “human
face” which used money responsibly and sensibly’
(Moretti, 1988 ; Gelder, 1994 : 19). Here, Dracula is represented as a selfish and
despotic monopolist, remorselessly and greedily accumulating capital
– not unlike the reckless ‘banksters’ of late
who are publically condemned for adopting a regressive economic
. Judith Walkowitz suggests that London had been understood as a ‘bifurcated city’, east and west culturally and economically opposed: labour and capital, poverty and leisure, criminal and bourgeois, alien and nation. Franco Moretti, in his Atlas of the European Novel 1800–1900 (1998), makes a similar argument about London’s duality, which he diagnoses in Dickens’s Oliver Twist :
Two half-Londons, that do not add up to a whole … It is Dickens’ great wager: to unify the two halves of the city. And his pathbreaking discovery: once the two
Literature , pp. 196, 198.
Thomas J. Moretti, by contrast, argues that The Virgin Martyr proposes a via media of religious tolerance in parallel to James I's attempts for reconciliation and moderation in religious policy (‘ Via Media Theatricality and Religious Fantasy in Thomas Dekker and Philip Massinger's The Virgin Martyr ’, Renaissance Drama 42:2 , pp. 243
as formal exploration of an extended Bildungsroman around
‘the conflict between the ideal of self-determination
and the equally imperious demands of socialisation ’
(Moretti 1987 , 15).
However, Arachne’s travels do not end in the ‘harmonious
solution’ expected of that genre (Moretti 1987 , 15), namely
the ‘conclusive synthesis