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Rethinking closure in the Victorian novel

undertaking would only be possible with an army of researchers, perhaps utilising the statistical methodology of Franco Moretti’s Graphs, Maps, Trees.10 Selection is necessary, so it is the novels that are most demonstrative of particular types of closure, rather than ones that use biblical iconography or geological metaphor, that are included. Moreover, the novel is such a fertile form that it is not feasible to assert that narrative fiction changed direction in this period. Nonetheless, the novels selected show that these new forms were not hidden away in experimental

in Discovering Gilgamesh
The popular novel in France

romances of Maryan, it is possible to draw some general conclusions about the kinds of narrative that drew large readerships. If ‘high’ literature is characterised by a self-conscious will to seek new forms, to question and reinvent the relationship between language and experience, popular literature seeks to provide reliable pleasures, both cognitive and affective, and thus observes the norms established by previous successes even as it plays new variations on existing themes and narrative chords. As Franco Moretti suggests, the history of popular literature is closer

in Imagining the popular in contemporary French culture
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Poems, p. 201. 32 Carolyn Steedman, ‘The Poetry of It (Writing History)’, Angelika Bammer and RuthEllen Joeres (eds), The Future of Scholarly Writing. Critical Interventions, Palgrave Macmillan, New York NY, 2015, pp. 215–226. 33 ‘Historical thought was an essential element of almost every poem Auden wrote in 1955’. Edward Mendelson, Later Auden, Faber and Faber, London, 1999, pp. 390–392. 34 The most succinct and resonant account of these processes, of heart and mind and writing, remains Franco Moretti’s Way of the World. The Bildungsroman in European Culture

in Poetry for historians
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his subordinate position as a petty bourgeois professional, but it initiated a long line of haughty aristocratic bloodsuckers, tinged with ancient and decadent grandeur. 24 Though in Polidori and Varney and Le Fanu, the vampire crosses from the villages of Middle Europe to be invited in over the threshold of the polite drawing room, in Stoker’s Dracula he truly enters modern urban life. 25 Confusingly, as Moretti

in Open Graves, Open Minds
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The economics of salvation in Dracula and the Twilight Saga

famously describes in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism : a faith that would regard Carlisle’s good deeds in the world as indirect evidence of an otherworldly election’ (pp. 74–5). For a contrasting account of vampires and the Protestant work ethic, see Franco Moretti’s ‘A Capital Dracula ’, pp. 90–104. 16

in Open Graves, Open Minds
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Refiguring Dracula in a neoliberal age

cohere as an “organic” process with a “human face” which used money responsibly and sensibly’ (Moretti, 1988 ; Gelder, 1994 : 19). Here, Dracula is represented as a selfish and despotic monopolist, remorselessly and greedily accumulating capital – not unlike the reckless ‘banksters’ of late who are publically condemned for adopting a regressive economic rationality that

in Neoliberal Gothic
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An East End apocalypse

. Judith Walkowitz suggests that London had been understood as a ‘bifurcated city’, east and west culturally and economically opposed: labour and capital, poverty and leisure, criminal and bourgeois, alien and nation. Franco Moretti, in his Atlas of the European Novel 1800–1900 (1998), makes a similar argument about London’s duality, which he diagnoses in Dickens’s Oliver Twist : Two half-Londons, that do not add up to a whole … It is Dickens’ great wager: to unify the two halves of the city. And his pathbreaking discovery: once the two

in Iain Sinclair

Literature , pp. 196, 198. 28 Thomas J. Moretti, by contrast, argues that The Virgin Martyr proposes a via media of religious tolerance in parallel to James I's attempts for reconciliation and moderation in religious policy (‘ Via Media Theatricality and Religious Fantasy in Thomas Dekker and Philip Massinger's The Virgin Martyr [1622]’, Renaissance Drama 42:2 [2014], pp. 243

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama
Aritha van Herk and No Fixed Address

flashbacks even as formal exploration of an extended Bildungsroman around ‘the conflict between the ideal of self-determination and the equally imperious demands of socialisation ’ (Moretti 1987 , 15). However, Arachne’s travels do not end in the ‘harmonious solution’ expected of that genre (Moretti 1987 , 15), namely the ‘conclusive synthesis

in Gothic Forms of Feminine Fictions
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‘Of magic look and meaning’: themes concerning the cultural chess-player

, masculinities, and moralities. An epilogue considers the chess-player from an early twentyfirst-century perspective. Notes  1 D. Martin, Curious Visions of Modernity: Enchantment, Magic, and the Sacred (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011), p. xiv.  2 Ibid., p. xv.  3 F. Moretti, Graphs, Maps and Trees: Abstract Models for Literary History (London: Verso, 2007), p. 4.  4 P. Metzner, Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris During the Age of Revolution (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998), p. 1.  5 Oxford English Dictionary

in A cultural history of chess-players