of imperial policy as well as the formation of new international relationships that anticipated the eventual First World War blocs.
From the very beginning, Punch 's response to the massacres leaves no doubt that discussions over Ottoman abuses of power were of central importance to late Victorianpolitics and society. When news of massacres of Anatolian Armenians began to appear in British newspapers in the latter half of 1894, the killings were ‘swiftly politicised’.
This was part of a
University Press, Cambridge, 1979, p. 82. Scott and Lloyd George
would diverge on subsequent foreign policy crises, especially
following the Great War.
Quoted in ibid. , p. 81.
Jones, VictorianPolitical Thought
constitution and action of government are concerned, as distinct from what
is or has been’, he also subjected the political conclusions reached by
utilitarianism to careful analysis in order to demonstrate that they
were roughly equivalent to the views held by the educated elite.98 In
a sense, therefore, the method of The Methods was used to vindicate
utilitarianism in Victorianpolitical and intellectual life (even if the
book left a nagging doubt: was utilitarianism believed because it was
true, or vice versa?). In contrast, The Development of European Polity
in Victorian intellectual life is increasingly being appreciated. See for example H. S. Jones, ‘The
idea of the national in Victorianpolitical thought’, European Journal of Political Theory, 5 (2006), 12–21. The classic study is Duncan Forbes, The Liberal
Anglican Idea of History (Cambridge, 1952).
See also the discussion in John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative
and Inductive, fifth edition, 2 vols (London, 1862 ), II, book 6, ch. 11
(‘Additional elucidations of the science of history’).
E. H. Carr, What Is History?, second edition (London, 1987
Roman Catholic doubts, found himself reading the
Constitutions as a medicinal exercise.48 Far from purging him of his Catholicism, they
helped drive him across the great divide into the welcoming arms of Rome.
Becket, then, remained central to Victorianpolitical narratives. He appears in
the novels of Anthony Trollope (1815–82), being cited in Phineas Redux (1874) by
Trollope’s fictitious Young Englandist Mr Daubeny in a debate over the relations
between Church and state:
On the subject of the Church [Mr Daubeny] was rather misty but very profound. He
went into the
patriotism from Georgian and early Victorianpolitical radicalism to its
manifestations in the age of new imperialism. Popular portrayals of
naval men in mid-to late Victorian Britain could at once remind Britons
of the navy’s historic legacy in securing both freedom and empire
and the compatibility between them. Such celebratory depictions
concealed the problematic roles that impressment and corporal discipline
this, MCC government itself was stocked by
this group, and being the cricket decision-making body these
people wielded great influence throughout the cricketing empire as well
as the political one. These empires, in fact, were one and the same.
There was a direct link between Victorianpolitics and
Victorian cricket. Even the puritanical Richard Cobden, best remembered
now for his role in the repeal of
Colonial subjects and the appeal for imperial justice
Charles V. Reed
Relations in VictorianPolitical Thought’, Historical
Journal 49, no. 1 ( 2006 ):
Bill Schwarz, The White Man’s World
(Oxford, 2011 ), 107.
Duncan Bell, ‘The Idea of a Patriot Queen
Hight and Alice M.F. Candy, A Short
History of the Canterbury College (Auckland: Whitcombe
and Tombs, 1927), p. 24.
Stefan Collini, ‘The Idea of
“Character” in VictorianPolitical
Thought’, Transactions of the Royal Historical
Society , 35 ( 1985
Freedom, laissez-faire and the state after Britain’s abolition of slavery
the meanest forms of ‘negative’ and ‘positive’ liberties.
We have long known that freedom for black West Indians was limited, but we can
learn about Victorianpolitics by understanding how those common limitations
were justified in rather different ways. Emancipation reshaped Britain’s economy,
foreign policy and empire – and though it did not fundamentally reshape concepts of liberty or expectations of government, the politics of anti-slavery can
reveal the contortions of Victorian debates with unusual clarity.
1 Many thanks to the editors of this volume