A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change
and programming skills, as well as resources for quickly training newcomers to help map. Communication channels are well set up and those contributing
to the map can make use of an interface that has been evolving through user
Maps as foams 211
feedback. As a result, the HOT team was able to rapidly supplement existing
maps of the affected areas (using pre-disaster satellite images from Bing maps)
and then, in a second phase, map the extent of damage because they were
granted access to post-disaster satellite imagery.
This mapping project ‘bubble’ is well
The restructuring of work and production in the international political economy
interests of social groups within British firms.
First, the lines of communication between employer and employee,
historically represented by a ‘single channel’ of trade union-centred collective
bargaining, are increasingly ‘dominated by the employer, with no independent
representation of workers interests’ (Hyman, 1997: 314). There is a ‘representation gap’ (Towers, 1997) in hyperflexible state-societies that leaves six out
of seven US workers, and two out of three British workers, without effective
forms of representation at work. As a result, concerted negotiation has
musicians rather than from books or written notation – Irish traditional musicians have adapted to changes in communication
technology. John and I listen to radio programmes and recordings to learn
tunes and use the internet to view video clips of traditional Irish music. We are
part of a global community of traditional Irish musicians that share tunes and
stories. John has a wealth of history from his youth and home place but also
adapts to changes in a living musical tradition.
Changing spaces and going global
The conflict between notions of tradition/purism and change
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott
of Communication, 8: pp. 1765–1783.
Verhoeff, N. (2012) Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam
Wilmott, C. (2016) Small moments, big data: Mobile mapping in everyday life. Big Data and
Society, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951716661364.
Wood, D. (1992) The Power of Maps. New York: Guilford Press.
slaves. However, from the perspective of the masters, the slaves were nothing more than goods. Two dehumanities lived alongside each other but could not relate – one produced by the violence of slavery and the commercialisation of human beings, and the other produced for the benefit of the masters, their side-kicks and those who stood to benefit from the system. Slavery is not a relationship. The two ways of being show an ontological duplicity.
The hypothesis of a dual ontology
There is no communication between the two ontologies: slaves do not suddenly become
absolute terms – the
most globalised, the most successful, and so forth. These sentiments were represented in portrayals of Ireland as a knowledge economy that emphasised the
liberating capacity of information and communication technology (ICT), particularly from the constraints of geography. In the archive of the boom-time,
there is an interview in Business Week with one key figure in the Celtic Tiger
story, Mary Harney, the leader of the now defunct right-of-centre political
party the Progressive Democrats and then Tánaiste and Minister for Enterprise,
communication sector rather than unskilled manual work’ (Bord Glas, 2002:
6). Although, as Bradley (1988) has suggested, farm labour has never carried
a high social status in Ireland. Therefore, even with rising unemployment nationally, the low pay and insecure nature of horticultural employment that
characterises it as part of the secondary labour market also renders it unattractive to the Irish workforce and dependent on migrant labour. In addition,
evidence from supporting welfare beneficiaries into short-term, seasonal work
(Bord Glas, 1988; 1994
promise the motorway made to develop the regional economy
of the south-east has not materialised. Between 2008 and 2011, just as the infrastructure came on-stream, the number of people registered as unemployed
in Waterford rose by over 100 per cent. Job losses included the closure of the
famed Waterford Crystal plant and the global tele-services provider TalkTalk.
These economic problems illustrate that in the world of instant communication
and rapid technological innovation, where businesses can operate in the cloud
rather than on concrete, the assumptions about the
100 years of Ireland in National Geographic magazine
Patrick J. Duffy
with an American divorcée.
Traditional Irish storyteller.
Arensberg, C. M. and Kimball, S. T. (1940) Family and Community in Ireland.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
100 years of Ireland in National Geographic
Bell, D. (1995) ‘Picturing the landscape: Die grune insel: tourist images of Ireland’,
European Journal of Communication 10, 1: 41–62.
Brett, D. (1996) The Construction of Heritage. Cork: Cork University Press.
Gibbons, L. (1996) Transformations in Irish Culture. Cork: Cork University Press.
Kirby, P., Gibbons, L. and Cronin, M. (2002
engagement has been limited. The need to
continuously animate these urban spaces by identifying new and more effective
strategies in order to engage with the local community has been recognised.
The urban gardens are mainly perceived as public places and thus less related
to an autonomous interaction. The majority of the respondents demonstrated
an awareness about the existence of the urban gardens. However, it is still not
very clear to the residents and retailers who is in charge of their management
and maintenance. This highlights a scarce or ineffective communication