Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.

Bayly 01_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:15 Page 3 1 How and why history matters for development policy 1 Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter and Vijayendra Rao Study history, study history. In history lies all the secrets of statecraft. Winston Churchill Getting history wrong is an essential part of being a nation. Ernest Renan [M]odern social science, policy-making and planning have pursued a model of scientism and technical manipulation which systematically, and deliberately, neglects human, and above all, historical, experience. The fashionable model of analysis and

in History, historians and development policy
A social revolution begins

Ireland was the first country to extend marriage to same-sex couples through a public vote. This book records the political campaign and strategy that led to this momentous event in 2015, from the origins of a gay rights movement in a repressive Ireland through to the establishment of the Yes Equality campaign. The story traces how, for perhaps the first time in the history of the Irish State, the country shed its conservative Catholic image. Ultimately, this is the account of how a new wave of activism was successfully introduced in Ireland which led to a social revolution that is being fully realised in 2019 and beyond through subsequent campaigns, activism and further referenda. The marriage equality movement is best explored through the stories of the main campaigners, including those already well known in the Irish movement, such as David Norris, Katherine Zappone and Ann Louise Gilligan, as well as individuals who inspired the founding of vibrant new groups such as NOISE and Marriage Equality, or reactivated established groups such as GLEN. This social revolution is detailed through accounts of how political lobbying was used and court cases launched that brought about necessary legal and political change which now showcases Ireland as a progressive country continually working towards achieving full equality.

A disrupted digression on productive disorder, disorderly pleasure, allegorical properties and scatter

expectations, realistic and unrealistic. For better or worse, things do not turn out the way we figure. An audience gathers – to enter into history, taste a small morsel of historicity. Small or large, it applauds, bridles, is moved to action – or dozes off or slips away – or never shows up in the first place. How dreary to contemplate ‘process’, ‘audience’, ‘reception’, ‘impact’. We fall into generic modes: demographics

in Communicating the history of medicine

Best known as a historian of England and Europe, Freeman had an enduring interest in the Orient which has been largely overlooked by modern scholars. Writing in 1877, Freeman reflected that he had ‘read, thought, and written’ about the East ‘for many years’ and that the subject had been ‘through life my chief secondary object of study’. 1 As noted in the Introduction, Freeman became aware of Oriental history when he read William Cooke Taylor’s History of the Overthrow of the Roman Empire as an adolescent. In the pages of this book he would have found

in History, empire, and Islam

professional interest was being shown in New Zealand history. Historiographically, however, ‘popular heritage’ such as that practised by the early historical societies has been viewed disparagingly. Jock Phillips, for example, has criticised the writers of early local histories for their lack of interest in the larger questions of Pakeha society and its values, while James Belich suggests that, with the

in History, heritage, and colonialism
A Mirror for Magistrates and early English tragedy

recounting tragedies from periods of Civil War. The Mirror covers the century of civil strife caused by the Wars of the Roses. Gorboduc replays an episode in ancient British history in which King Gorboduc divided the realm between his two sons, sparking a disastrous Civil War. And Jocasta , dramatising the story of Oedipus, likewise covers the conflict between the brothers

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories

• 5 • Empire and history writing since 1950 It’s our cultural bloodstream, the secret of who we are, and it tells us to let go of the past, even as we honour it. To lament what ought to be lamented and to celebrate what should be celebrated. And if in the end, that history turns out to reveal itself as a patriot, well then I think that neither Churchill nor Orwell would have minded that very much, and as a matter of fact, neither do I. (Simon Schama)1 they’re all leaky categories, history, nostalgia, memory, heritage. They’re not hermetically sealed categories

in Empire and history writing in Britain c.1750–2012

The texts of Henry V Is Henry V better understood as a ‘memory play’ than as a ‘history play’? The former category has helped to define the concerns of modern (and post-modern) drama; it may prove equally fertile for Renaissance theatre. 1 Perceiving Shakespeare’s play as ‘memorial’ would supplant

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories
Abstract only

1 Marxism and history How are we to understand the nature of historical knowledge? The way that historians traditionally have answered this question has come under sustained attack since the 1980s in the wake of what has become known as the ‘cultural’ or ‘linguistic turn’. This shift in perspective can be understood as a reaction to two developments. Negatively, as Bonnell and Hunt have argued, the old positivistic assumption about the nature of history – that it consisted in the accumulation of facts collected by diligent historians – came increasingly to be

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history