In this chapter our focus will be wider. It
will include other aspects of humanitarian intervention and not only diplomatic
exchanges and the views of major protagonists. We will attempt to pinpoint the
elements of a rising Russian and European sense of identification and empathy with
the suffering. Moreover, we will trace the links and vehicles through which the
suffering of ‘strangers’ in the unknown Balkans (the
‘Christian East’ of the Asian
The nineteenth-century fear of hell is so terrible as to be itself an experience of hell; if so, it is a fearfully acute apprehension of the infinite distance housed within seemingly finite time. There can be no talk, no measuring, of the length of the nineteenth century without reference to hell, and the fear thereof. The Arcadist's account of the nineteenth century explodes in so many directions that it defeats all attempts to measure it. The strange lesson of Edgar Allan Poe's The Man of the Crowd, the short story seized upon by the Arcadist as, in effect, an allegory of the nineteenth century, the century of the crowd. The face of the twentieth century would seem, however, to be nearly completed, more decidable. The face in the motor-car that is chauffeur-driven through the streets of central London in Virginia Woolf's Mrs Dalloway is a world-historical face.
This chapter critically reflects on the interface between literature and science in the long nineteenth century. The literature-science field has been characteristically concerned with the transmission of thought and its conveyance by the material channels of technological media. The chapter considers the case of a 'transitional' literary writer Arnold Bennett and examines the aspects of his novel-writing practice that speak of his subtle engagement with Victorian ideas about day-to-day science and technology. It explores Bennett's essay The Rising Storm of Life as a magazine publication which provides a context for reflecting on more direct exchanges between popular writing and scientific ideas. The detail that Bennett employs is indicative of what might be seen as an investment in Herbert Spencer's radical Victorian scientific philosophy. This philosophy has been somewhat overlooked in work on Victorian literature and science, given Charles Darwin's prominence.
This chapter addresses how looking at readers and writers within fin de siècle Gothic texts enables us to reconsider the Gothic's critique of the dominant culture. The critical journey that the fin de siècle Gothic takes us on is an unusual odyssey which, in the instance of readers and writers, leads towards animals. The contribution that recent work in animal studies can make to our rethinking about the Gothic at the end of the nineteenth century is explored in depth in an account of Dracula. The Great God Pan demonstrates a level of self-reflection which celebrates the counter-cultural virtues of the Gothic. Readers and writers in Dracula point towards the importance of self-reflection. The novel indicates ways in which this breaks down as vampirism functions as a missing link between the human and the animal.
European displays of natural history and anatomy and nineteenth-century literature
This chapter argues that objects related to natural history and anatomy informed the literature of the long nineteenth century, and underlines the importance of material exchanges across cultural borders. Many of the objects exhibited in the cabinets of natural history were anatomical specimens, models and preparations, comprising artificial models, body parts in jars and articulated skeletons. In Italy, the gruesome models of the 'Gabinetto Fisico' illuminated the impact of anatomical culture in Europe. Samuel Alberti refers to late-Victorian medical Gothic, but the example of Frankenstein as a nineteenth-century novel poised between the tradition of the Gothic novel and already foreshadowing the Victorian Gothic is illuminating. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, as an early nineteenth-century example, may record how the various forms of nature collected, recreated and exhibited in natural history cabinets impacted contemporary fiction. Frankenstein's creature is compared to a mummy at the opening and the end of the novel.
In considering English culture of the long nineteenth-century, we may immediately think of giants of fiction: the witty and delicate satire of Jane Austen, the Gothic achievement of Mary Shelley, and the social commentary of Charles Dickens. The following giants feature in this list as well: the panoramic narrative of George Eliot, the thrilling narratives of Robert Louis Stevenson, and the forging of a national identity in Sir Walter Scott. In terms of literary technique, writers such as Shelley, Henry James and Joseph Conrad can be seen to have appropriated conventions of popular genres with a calculated literary ambition. Post-nineteenth century, the multifarious adaptations of these works into performance media reveal an ideological dimension. Although in The Turn of the Screw James appropriates Gothic and ghost story conventions to blur and confound them, it is a story that has cast a long shadow of influence ever since, especially in cinema.
Storytelling and theatricality in adaptations of the life of Joseph Merrick
Joseph Carey Merrick, the so-called 'The Elephant Man', is a ubiquitous figure in representations of the Gothicised late-Victorian city. This chapter shows that Ashley Montagu's book The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity created a particular impression of Merrick based on Montagu's theory of emotional development. It explains how the circulation of Merrick's image and myth has lent him such cultural visibility, taking him from a relatively obscure Victorian curiosity to a potent symbol of the outsider. The chapter compares the Bernard Pomerance play and the David Lynch film, and their treatment of melodrama and the theatre and explores a range of The Elephant Man plays that have been performed since the 1990s. It examines how subsequent adaptations of Merrick's life story have responded to the representational structures put in place by Pomerance and Lynch.
T HIS CHAPTER
EXAMINES the use of moral suasion in cases of violence,
justified as humanitarian intervention. It argues that rather than this
being reflective of normative shifts in world politics brought about by
global civil society, it can be explained by referring to the role of
power and interests. After an examination of how supporters of global
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock
scattered land holdings in many regions, even those lords who were involved in macro-politics might be neighbours in small settlements, allowing us to see them both as outsiders to local society and as insiders.
The following two chapters treat the question of how outside interventions influenced local practices. In this chapter we will discuss the ways in which secular office holders, especially lower office holders, were present and how they acted within local society. Chapter 7 will change the perspective: in it, we will focus on other kinds of outside intervention
PROBLEM-SOLVING WORKSHOP conflict resolution is a form of
peaceful third-party intervention. The approach argues that it differs
from the traditional approaches to mediation in many respects. It
assumes, for example, that conflicts can be best resolved in small-group
discussions which are guided by facilitators. The role of the
facilitator is to assist the parties to communicate rather than to