The English System is a history of port health and immigration at a critical moment of transformation at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. It challenges generally held assumptions that quarantine policies delineated intransigent national borders, and argues instead that the British geo-body was defined as a more fluid construction. A combination of port sanitation and sanitary surveillance, known to contemporaries as the ‘English System,’ was gradually introduced as an alternative to obstructive quarantines at a time of growing international commerce. Yet at the same time escalating anti-alien anxieties sought to restrict the movement of migrants and transmigrants who arrived from the Continent in increasing numbers. With the abolition of quarantine in 1896 the importance of disease categories based on place, which had formed its foundation and which had been adapted for the new ‘English system,’ lessened. However, these categories had not collapsed but were merely transferred. This book examines this crucial transition showing how the classification of ‘foreign’ and ‘domestic’ disease was translated, after the abolition of quarantine and during the period of mass migration, to ’foreign’ and ‘domestic’ bodies – or the immigrant and the native population.
Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas. Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals. These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.
When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.
The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s
David T. Gleeson
In 1995 President Mary Robinson of Ireland, in an address to a joint session of the Irish Parliament, argued that the Irish people in Ireland should ‘cherish the diaspora’ abroad. By 2015 the once little-used idea of the Irish diaspora had been incorporated into the Irish Constitution, with its own government minister, with a bespoke diaspora policy. The term ‘diaspora’ seemed to suit because as well as including the descendants of Irish emigrants, it implied an element of compulsion in Irish migration. This idea of Irish emigration as one of exile has a long pedigree going back to the early seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth, images of exiles were reinforced by the political refugees of the 1798 rebellion. Mass migration after 1815, however, complicated this notion of migration as exile. Were all those millions of Irish who left between 1815 and 1995 truly exiles? Did they represent themselves as exiles? Was exile their reality? This chapter uses the concept of diaspora as a way to assess the ways Irish emigration was seen by the Irish who left, their descendants and those they left behind. It does not overlook the Protestant. Ultimately, this chapter will attempt to show how Irishness itself was often defined through the diaspora and the formation of a distinct Irish national identity.
This book recounts the little-known history of the mixed-race children born to
black American servicemen and white British women during the Second World War.
Of the three million American soldiers stationed in Britain from 1942 to 1945,
about 8 per cent (240,000) were African-American; the latter’s relationships
with British women resulted in the birth of an estimated 2,000 babies. The
African-American press named these children ‘brown babies’; the British called
them ‘half-castes’. Black GIs, in this segregated army, were forbidden to marry
their white girlfriends. Up to half of the mothers of these babies, faced with
the stigma of illegitimacy and a mixed-race child, gave their children up for
adoption. The outcome for these children tended to be long-term residency in
children’s homes, sometimes followed by fostering and occasionally adoption, but
adoption societies frequently would not take on ‘coloured’ children, who were
thought to be ‘too hard to place’. There has been minimal study of these
children and the difficulties they faced, such as racism in a (then) very white
Britain, lack of family or a clear identity. Accessibly written and illustrated
with numerous photographs, this book presents the stories of over forty of these
children. While some of the accounts of early childhood are heart-breaking,
there are also many uplifting narratives of finding American fathers and gaining
a sense of self and of heritage.
With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek and Justyna Salamońska
circumstances’ (Massey et al., 1998: 10) coincided that triggered a
wave of massmigration. However, we are likely to see continuous travel
and two-way traffic between the two countries as the Polish–Irish migration system remains in place. In fact, new linkages, including business
connections and tourism, may emerge in the future as the two countries
become more connected in the context of large-scale migration flows
(Hennessy, 2011). There is little doubt that Polish migration has left a
lasting impact on Irish society. In spite of the recession and rising unemployment, the
days, questions of race were fundamentally entwined in Fulbright programming
decisions. Race consciousness and identification were often significant in scholar
Confronting racial diversity
experiences. When young Queensland scientist Patricia Lee won her Fulbright
award in 1954, the metropolitan press chose to report it as ‘Chinese Girl Wins
Award’ although her family had lived in Australia for generations.5 Racial identity
questions were also tied in with the post-war massmigration scheme from Europe
that was changing Australia. Fulbright scholars
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek and Justyna Salamońska
main findings and reflect
upon the merits of a QPS to study the mobility patterns of migrants.
We argue that a QPS is well-suited to study the mobility behaviour
of migrants and to document how their experiences can change over
time. Our interview sample was confined to a relatively small number
of Polish migrants in Ireland. However, we suggest that their mobility patterns are indicative of a broader trend across Europe. While the
massmigration that ensued post-2004 was quite exceptional in its scale,
especially younger and more educated Europeans increasingly make
education, where there are centuries of culture and art to delve into. It is not easy to think of something sufficiently attractive …
as justification for study in Australia’.10
Perhaps it was considered too similar to the United States to offer meaningful
learning experiences. This overlooked what Australia had to offer as a region of recent
European settlement and Indigenous populations, with a history of leading the world
in women’s suffrage, in labour politics and democratic reforms; its comparative value
as a new massmigration destination and its cultural place as