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Lunacy and the asylum

earnings or their potential for violence.7 Yet to see medical practitioners as the recipients rather than the providers of mental health care is also to run counter to the historiography of the asylum. Historians who would support the general outline of Foucault’s ‘great confinement’ thesis have characterised doctors as among those responsible for defining, capturing, and incarcerating the insane. The rationales for admitting pauper patients to county asylums or workhouses have Mad doctors: lunacy and the asylum 201 circled around the limitations of domestic care

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890
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and suppression of the sexual deviant are examined in Chapter 1. The narrative of the ways in which homosexuals and transvestites have been regarded and treated by British society are explored and the introduction of aversion therapies for sexual deviance considered. The mixed and muddled messages nurses were receiving about these individuals are also discussed. During the 1930s–1950s, mental health care witnessed a spirit of ‘therapeutic optimism’ as new somatic treatments and therapies 27 ‘Curing queers’ were introduced in mental hospitals. Chapter 2 examines

in ‘Curing queers’

asylum determination procedure and beyond, there is evidence that woman are not receiving the level of care that is necessary. In 2004, the government released a five-year plan, Delivering Race Equality in Mental Health Care. This plan mentions refugees and asylum seekers only very briefly. In November 2000, the DoH had published an information booklet for NHS staff dealing with asylum seekers and refugees, entitled Meeting the Health Needs of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK:An Information and Resource Pack for Health Workers (Burnett and Fassil 2000).The booklet

in Refugee women in Britain and France

in her cure both inside and, increasingly, outside clinical and hospital settings was pushed by British psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and other reformers from the 1960s. Empowering the patient Since the 1990s, a number of medical practitioners and others involved in mental health care have written on recovery. In this vast literature, we often encounter a distinction between ‘recovery’ and ‘rehabilitation’. Recovery is usually defined as an approach by which people suffering from mental illness are offered various empowerment techniques in order to better cope

in The politics of health promotion
Recruitment and retention in mental health nursing in England, 1948-68

bitterly fought against dilution schemes throughout the period under discussion. The early years of the NHS were marked by contentious debates about the necessary skill mix on the wards as assistant or enrolled nurses were introduced into mental health care. In 1943 the Nurses’ Act had provided a legislative framework that legitimated ‘a lower stratum of nursing labour, that would then free the student nurse to pursue an educationally orientated form of training’.60 Then, building on the recommendations of the Athlone Report (1945), experienced nursing orderlies and

in Mental health nursing
Surviving change c.1970-90

leaders. If they expected a bland ministerial delivery of the sort that was written for ministers by civil servants, they were in for a shock. Powell was concerned by the amount of beds taken up by mental health care and had been influenced by the mental hospitals that he had visited.18 He delivered a rallying call for the closure of the mental hospitals and their replacement by care in the community for those needing services: Now look and see what are the implications of these bold words. They imply nothing less than the elimination of by far the greater part of this

in Mental health nursing
Healthcare professionals and the BBC

-­media controversy’, Media History, 6 (2000), 177–88. 21 Ibid. 22 See J. V. Pickstone, ‘Psychiatry in general hospitals: history, contingency and local innovation in the early years of the National Health Service’, in J. V. Pickstone (ed.), Medical Innovations in Historical Perspective (Houndmills, 1992), pp. 185–99, and S. Cherry, Mental Health Care in Modern England: The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum / St Andrew’s Hospital c.1810–1998 (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 231–40. 23 BBC WAC, S322/117/3, BBC audience research report, 12 November 1956, p. 5. 24 W. Sargant, ‘The Hurt Mind’, British

in Destigmatising mental illness?

feared – the abandonment of moral treatment, a purely clinical approach to patients, huge custodial hospitals, and a sharply class-differentiated system of mental health care – all came to pass in the late nineteenth century. What might be styled a ‘cult of pessimism’ thoroughly supplanted the old cult of curability.26 The eclipse of moral therapy In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the era of moral therapy ended in America. This happened as the spirit of the Kirkbride-style hospital was replaced by the custodial ethos of asylum bureaucracies, depriving

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
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New Jersey, 1800–70

(Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 2006), pp. 108–29; Steven Cherry, Mental Health Care in Modern England: The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum/St. Andrew’s Hospital c. 1810–1998 (Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2003), pp. 53–82; Ellen Dwyer, Homes for the Mad: Life Inside Two Nineteenth-Century Asylums (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987); Nancy Tomes, A Generous Confidence: Thomas Story Kirkbride and the Art of Asylum-Keeping, 1840–1883 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 188–263, passim; James Moran, Committed to the State Lunatic Asylum: Insanity and

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
The policies of professionalisation in English mental hospitals from 1919 to 1959

Manning, The Therapeutic Community Movement: Charisma and Routinisation (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1989). 34 Vicky Long, ‘Rethinking post-war mental health care: Industrial therapy and the chronic mental patient in Britain’, Social History of Medicine, 26:4 (2013), 738–58. 35 Maxwell Jones, ‘Industrial therapy of patients still in hospital’, Lancet, 2 (1956), 985. 36 Diane Waller, Becoming a Profession: History of Art Therapy in Britain, 1940–82 (London: Tavistock, 1991). 37 Nancy Wansbrough and Agnes Miles, Industrial Therapy in Psychiatric Hospitals (London

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015