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mark. Instead the social democrats concentrated on supplying cheap food to the urban population and securing rapid industrial growth on terms that protected the recent gains of the industrial working class. To both ends, it encouraged corporatist collaboration between employers and trade unions of the kind symbolised by the Stinnes-Legien pact. By the middle of 1920, after elections to the Reichstag in which the total vote for the constitutional parties was less than 50 per cent, the fate of the Weimar republic stood in the balance. With the revolutionary left less

in Might, right, prosperity and consent

patriarchal, patrilineal family and a three-class social structure. The three classes were the priestly class, the warrior class and the commons, known as the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas respectively. The Hindu caste system started as a class system called varnashram dharma (varna actually means colour).The fourth caste or class, the Shudras, were the dasas and those of mixed Aryan-dasa origin.They were excluded from participating in Vedic ritual and worshipped their own gods.The foremost Aryan tribe was called Bharata, from which independent India or Bharat possibly

in India in a globalized world
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Why queer(y) citizenship?

in the title of her well-​known text: ‘the Borderlands are physically present wherever two or more cultures edge each other, where people of different races occupy the same territory, where under, lower, middle and upper classes touch, where the space between two individuals shrinks with intimacy’.25 This book discusses Anzaldúa as not only the foundational figure of border studies, but also reframes her active involvement in feminist movements as part of the broader narrative of US feminism in the 1970s and 1980s. North American borders have served as important

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship

diplomatic and political clout. It was a short-lived understanding but at the time it had a significant impact on policy-making. Contemporary European foreign policy is full of aspirations . Policy memos with reference to a desired stronger presence in areas ranging from the Far East to the Middle East are legion. In general, key policy statements more often than not present the Union as ‘a strong and

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
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-​general. 91 Olha Holoyda, ‘Ukrainian oligarchs and the “family”, a new generation of czars—​or hope for the middle class?’ Scholar Research Brief. Washington, DC:  IREX, 2013, p.  2. By comparison, the 100 richest Russians control 35 per cent of the country’s wealth, Sakwa, Frontline Ukraine, p. 61. 92 Van Zon et al., Social and Economic Change in Eastern Ukraine, pp. 134–​5. 93 Yurchenko, ‘Capitalist bloc formation’, pp. 140, 145, table 5.1 and 146, table 5.2. 94 See my Transnational Classes and International Relations, London: Routledge, 1998, pp. 79–​84, and

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War

would relinquish those territories where rule had become impracticable, including India and Palestine, but the empire in Africa and the Middle East would remain and be defended on the waters of the Mediterranean. In December 1944, Churchill ordered the British troops that had landed in Greece to end the Nazi occupation into a war against Greek resistance. Later, Churchill extended a security guarantee to Turkey too.34 Yet whatever premium most of the British political class attached to external status, the ambitions of post-war governments were financially M1218

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
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term in widespread popular usage before the war. Other distinctions also emerged. A well-informed observer attached to the Russian High Command argued that: those who ‘ran’ [bezhali] were the propertied classes, whereas the masses were chased away by force from their farms and hearths, deprived of v5v Introduction e­ verything. Refugees managed to bring along their capital assets, enabling them to live a new life [whereas] the forcibly displaced (vygontsy) crawled along with half their family, having buried the others along the way; they are empty-handed, hungry and

in Europe on the move

Adler (1997b) and Jeff Checkel (1997) , 1998a ), who have sought to carve out an analytically robust ‘middle ground’ between rationalists and reflectivists. Constructivism’s most important insight is that ‘the manner in which the material world shapes and is shaped by human action and interaction depends on dynamic normative and epistemic interpretations of the material world’ (Adler 1997b : 322

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

) corporate earnings in the first half of the 2003–04 fiscal year (for a sample of 3,287 companies across industries), increased by 43 per cent. Consumer spending has gone up; a survey reveals that in 2002 spending by upper- and middle-class families shot up by 12 per cent and the percentage of income spent on basic food and groceries fell for the first time in five years, whereas the share of income spent on clothing, personal care and ‘eating out’ rose significantly (India Today, 9 June 2003). Even sectors that some analysts describe as ‘beleaguered’, such as consumer

in India in a globalized world
Democracy in Bolivarian Venezuela in comparative perspective

framework from which to fashion new relations between state and society. They became dissatisfied, however, as they perceived an increasing breach developing between the precepts of the constitution and official discourse on the one hand, and the president’s divisive discourse and partisan governmental practice on the other. Polarisation developed and mobilisation increased, with class cleavages becoming more apparent as the middle and upper classes demonstrated against the government and the popular classes in support of it. Chávez responded to increased middle- and

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution