Refugees from Polish territories in Russia
during the First World War
Warfare on Polish soil in 1914–15 caused huge material losses, as well as
the impoverishment and deprivation of the local population.1 The war
also led to mass displacement, much of it involuntary, involving people
living in the territories of the Kingdom of Poland, a constituent part
of the Russian Empire, and in Galicia, belonging to Austria-Hungary.
Migration began in the first weeks of the war but acquired a mass character only in the latter half of
Paul Flenley and Michael Mannin
The publication of this volume comes at a time of existential crisis for the
European Union (EU). Internally it is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise
of anti-EU populism and ‘Brexit’. In its immediate neighbourhood it is
confronted by a range of challenges and threats. The Arab revolutions have
not turned into the hoped-for promise of democratisation and have instead
degenerated into civil war in the case of Libya, Syria and Yemen. The direct
impact of this on the EU is illustrated by the migration crisis which
argue that Access T.O. represents a political discourse about the inclusive nature of municipal policies. In a global context where anti-immigrant narratives and policies are on the rise, this human rights-centred policy 3 illustrates the growing involvement of municipalities in the governance of migration (see Darling and Bauder, this volume). In Canada, the power of any city is constrained by federal and provincial law. Thus, Toronto has been a pioneer in its attempt to push the boundaries of the municipal jurisdiction in order to protect the fundamental rights of
, Europeanisation and the concept of Europe act as part of their politics
and identity. However, they can be variously problematic and have different
meanings and uses. We also looked at a number of key sectors and themes
which are prominent in the conduct of relations between the EU and its
neighbours. We found that in various ways each of these highlight the
contradictions to be found in the approaches and assumptions of EUisation. Tensions in the nexus – between interests and values, for example
– emerged in areas such as energy, migration and security.
This conclusion draws
get quarters and districts of towns and cities that get taken over by one particular group… 2
Yet the picture of migration, citizenship, and rights in the city of Peterborough and its surrounding rural areas is, unsurprisingly, more complex than its reputation as a major reception city for international migrant workers, or Farage's portrayal of the consequences of this, might suggest.
In this chapter I argue, through the example of Peterborough, that a focus on
issues, policy areas and
thematic aspects which are important to the EU: resilience, security and
defence, sanctions, development policy, sustainable development goals,
human rights, migration, countering violent extremism, global governance,
The EU in the Asia-Pacific
energy and climate and cyber security to name just a few. “Human rights,
as well as women, peace and security and gender equality and women’s
empowerment” remain important issues which “will continue to be mainstreamed in all external EU policies” (Council of the European Union,
The English writer and critic John Berger regarded the twentieth century
as ‘the century of departure, of migration, of exodus, of disappearance:
the century of people helplessly seeing others, who were close to them,
disappear over the horizon’.1 Berger’s characterisation of ‘helplessness’
invites us to consider not only how people were rendered liable to sudden
and involuntary displacement, but also how those processes were represented at the time and subsequently. Global conflicts, revolutions and
civil wars have
prime minister has set foot on any part of Africa since 2013. There is either no diplomatic presence, or only a vestigial one, in some 16 African countries. Japan now has more embassies in Africa than Britain, and Germany more aid workers. (Kettle, 2018 )
This may be an unfair caricature but it is partly correct, as this chapter shows, and the UK’s preoccupation with migration and particularly its visa policy is also demonstrably impacting its Africa ambitions. The chapter will bring together these different elements of UK Africa policy to
Andrijasevic, R. (2010) ‘The cross-border migration’, in Migration, Agency and Citizenship in Sex Trafficking (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), 26–56.
Arendt, H. (1973a) Men in Dark Times (New York: Harcourt Brace).
Arendt, H. (1973b) Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, new edn).
Asante, M. K. (2008) It's Bigger Than Hip Hop: The Rise of the Post-hip-hop Generation (Basingstoke: Macmillan
widely, presenting the processes by which such diverse elements of
life as religious belief, football hooliganism, and offences against national
dignity have all been the subject of moves – some successful, some less so
– to make them matters of urgent national security concern.
Chapter 6 deals with the topic of migration. In Russia, as in many
other states, the impact of immigrants on national life has been a sharply
debated political issue. On the one hand, Russia more than most countries
appears to be in urgent need of more people, given its dire demographic