The radical who is transformed into a conservative is a common theme in political history. Benito Mussolini, the Italian socialist who became a fascist, is the best-known example, but there have been many others, including the numerous American Trotskyists and Marxists who later emerged as neo-conservatives, anti-communists or, in some instances, McCarthyists. The politics of betrayal examines why several one-time radicals subsequently became parts of the establishment in various countries, including the former Black Panther Party leader turned Republican Eldridge Cleaver, the Australian communist Adela Pankhurst who became an admirer of the Nazis, and the ex-radical journalist Christopher Hitchens, whose defection to the camp of George W. Bush’s neo-conservatives following 11 September 2001 offers one of the most startling examples of the phenomenon in recent times. How and why do so many radicals betray the cause? Is it simply a reaction to political defeat? Were their politics always problematic, even as radicals? Were the ex-radicals psychologically flawed to begin with? What implications does it have for left politics? This book, the first of its kind, answers these and more questions.
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Bottom–up politics: riots and extraparliamentary participation
Citizen politics is many things, but a major aspect of it is to speak up for
oneself and one’s community. In this chapter I consider a number of different forms of political engagement, all of which share the feature of
being unrelated to representative democracy. Citizen government and
involvement include a broad range of activities, legal as well as illegal,
new as well as old. Having looked at
This book seeks to review the state of political issues early in the twenty-first century, when New Labour is in its second term of office. As part of the updating process it became necessary to choose which political issues are important. The book includes the main issues which appear in current Advanced Level Politics syllabuses. In the case of Edexcel, which offers a specific political issues option in its A2 specification, all the specified issues have been included. The book deals with the process of constitutional and political change which are issues in themselves. It also includes material on constitutional reform (incorporating the recent development of human rights in Britain), and devolution. The book includes the global recession and other recent political developments and looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945. It examines the key issues of British politics today: economic policy, the Welfare State, law and order, environment policy, Northern Ireland, issues concerning women, European integration and the European Union, and the impact of the European Union on Britain. The book also deals with the European Union and Britain's relationship to it. Finally, it must be emphasised that Britain's relationship to the European Union is in itself a political issue which has fundamentally changed the party system.
Political parties are organisations of broadly like-minded men and women which
seek to win power in elections in order that they can then assume responsibility
for controlling the apparatus of government. Unlike interest groups, which seek
merely to influence the government, serious parties aims to secure the levers of
In this chapter, we examine their relevance in Britain and America. The emphasis
is on the competition between the two main parties in either country for the
control of public offices
This book is concerned with the interaction of traditional politics, culture and voluntary groups, of local and national influences, of ideals and individuals. It looks at local government, social groups and housing policy in the twentieth century. Manchester is the focal point, providing the type of specific detail that only single-city studies can supply. Studying housing provides the most dynamic of all policy areas. The book is divided into three sections, providing it with a structure which highlights the overarching narrative and key themes. The first section looks at some of the main aspects of national policy and legislation across the twentieth century and how these were then interpreted by different local authorities. It shows that while central government provided a lead, encouraging a common approach, national policy was only ever generalised. Cities continued to produce policies specific to their own areas, highlighting the continuing importance of locality in studying the decision-making process. The second section examines the rise of municipal housing in Manchester, looking at the creation and influence of civic culture on the council. In contrast, although the third section considers the continuing influence of civic culture on policy after 1960, it also highlights the decline of municipal legitimacy from the late 1960s. It looks at how tenant frustration gave rise to angry outbursts and organised protests, leading to a challenge to council authority and forcing a change to the decision-making process.
Political corruption and scandal
In the last chapter we considered the relationship between political corruption and organised crime. Thanks to the close connection between
the two concepts, ‘organised crime’ and ‘corruption’ are often confused
with one another or used interchangeably. This also seems to be the case
with the concepts of ‘corruption’ and ‘scandal’.
Yet the two are different. Corruption is by definition an illegitimate
activity and therefore likely to remain hidden. Therefore, you can have
corruption without scandal simply because
The operation of the British model of imperialism was never consistent, seldom coherent, and far from comprehensive. Purity campaigns, controversies about the age of consent, the regulation of prostitution and passage and repeal of contagious diseases laws, as well as a new legislative awareness of homosexuality, were all part of the sexual currency of the late Victorian age. Colonial governments, institutions and companies recognised that in many ways the effective operation of the Empire depended upon sexual arrangements. They devised elaborate systems of sexual governance, but also devoted disproportionate energy to marking and policing the sexual margins. This book not only investigates controversies surrounding prostitution, homosexuality and the age of consent in the British Empire, but also revolutionises people's notions about the importance of sex as a nexus of imperial power relations. The derivative hypothesis, which reads colonial sexuality politics as something England did or gave to its colonies, is illustrated and made explicit by the Indian Spectator, which seemed simply to accept that India should follow English precedent. In 1885, the South Australian parliament passed legislation, similar to England's Criminal Law Amendment Act, which raised the age of consent from 13 to 16 and introduced a series of restrictions and regulations on sexual conduct. Richard Francis Burton's case against the moral universalism and sex between men are discussed. 'Cognitively mapping' sexuality politics, the book has traced connections between people, places and politics, exploring both their dangers and opportunities, which revolve in each case around embroilments in global power.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction into the making, development and implementation of European Union (EU) environmental politics. The environmental policy of the EU has made impressive progress during the last three decades. Starting off as little more than a by-product of economic integration, it has developed into a central area of EU policy making. The book explores the driving forces behind this development, identifying the central areas and instruments of EU environmental policy, and analyses the factors influencing not only the formulation, but also the implementation, of environmental measures in the complex multi-level setting of the EU. On this basis, it takes a critical look at the EU's effectiveness and problem-solving capacity in the environmental field, employing an analytical perspective based on the theoretical state of the art of EU policy studies. Thus, the book provides an overview of the major theoretical approaches available in the field. At the same time, the discussion is illustrated by a broad range of empirical findings with regard to the formulation and implementation of EU environmental policy.
If I were a Marxist, I would be very tempted to argue that the
ascendancy of Trump and the Brexit result are signs that the
internal contradictions within capitalism are finally starting to
work out as expected. The revolution is near! It all seems ripe
for a Marxist revolution, and indeed the rise of Momentum
in the UK suggests something similar. However, history in
this Hegelian sense is unlikely to return, and Momentum (the
grassroots left-wing movement that supports Jeremy Corbyn),
while popular, remains a minority
This book brings together political and cultural historians, theatre and performance scholars, and specialists in the study of popular culture. The essays offer a series of shared and interdisciplinary approaches to the material and conceptual dimensions of ‘performance’ as an analytical category in order to analyse the cultural work of the theatre in the wider realm of public political life in nineteenth-century Britain.