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. – Luís de Camões, 1572 1 In 1553 Luís de Camões, the Portuguese poet and soon to be author of The Lusiads – the epic story immortalizing the voyage of Vasco da Gama to India in 1498 – set sail for India. That same year, the corpse of the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier was disinterred from his grave by several members of his religious order on the

in The relic state
The Bible and British Maritime Empire

One way of dealing with Isaiah’s Call to England is to pigeonhole it as a throwback to the chiliastic jeremiads that had proliferated between 1820 and 1840 and still littered the British religious publishing landscape. 6 While historicist premillennialists like Chamberlain continued to treat the apocalyptic books of the Bible and current events as mutually reinforcing interpretative keys, others were doubtful about the utility of this method. The ecclesiastical tattler W. J. Conybeare was one of them, his famous

in Chosen peoples
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‘out’, to realise its extra-territorial existence. References in Lloyd's catalogue were made to the ‘Commercial Community’ of Alexandria, which was represented as inclusive of diverse national and religious groups. The British were constituent parts, diverting attention from the fact of British paramountcy, and thus suggesting a region wide open to commerce and settlement. The impression given in the

in Egypt
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. It is important to stress that the German missionary experience in India mirrors that of similar religious workers throughout the world during the nineteenth century, originating not just in Germany but also from other European states and the USA. Arrival, travel and settlement The passages to India which brought the missionaries, scholars and

in The Germans in India
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mythology which fashioned a singular identity. Settlers no longer focused on ethnic, national or religious differences, instead the white nation was linked together against the black. In this sense Penn notes that ‘the frontier was as much a creator of new identities as it was a destroyer of old ones’. Notions of nationalism and group identity are also explored by Rod Macneil when

in Colonial frontiers
Cultural awakenings and national belongings

found themselves the centre of American politics, with an army to fight their battle and sing their songs. The freed slaves of the West Indies have had no such audience before which to play even so pathetic a part. The congregation at a West Indian church will show that the emotional material is there, but the West Indian as a people share surprisingly

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean

. As the century progressed, the congregation set up by Ziegenbalg – who died in 1719 – became truly multilingual such that Danish, German, Portuguese and Tamil all played a role in the communication between Europeans and Indians. This multilingualism became essential in the growth of Lutheranism in Tranquebar as the incoming church employed native catechists in order to spread the word. By 1718, the

in The Germans in India
Philanthropy, Agnes Weston and contested manhood

’s philanthropic pursuits confirmed her virtue, fulfilled her Christian duty, appealed to her religious sensibilities, as well as offered a change of pace to the banality of domestic life. It was not only an outlet for middle-class wives but also an acceptable occupation for unmarried middle-class women whose choices for employment were limited. Middle-class women were active in a variety of different charitable and

in From Jack Tar to Union Jack

ghosts and spirits to explain unusual cattle mortality. 26 During times of exceptional mortality officials reported that money was being offered to village Chamars, but this was, apparently, not a bribe to stop them from poisoning cattle but a payment in lieu of various religious ceremonies that they performed to propitiate evil spirits. 27 These ceremonies appear to have been

in Beastly encounters of the Raj
Time and the Sabbath beyond the Cape frontiers

via the Sabbath ritual – not merely with one another but also with British and Dutch congregations, who worshipped and conducted affairs on the basis of the same weekly pattern. Jean and John Comaroff provide an evocative image of mission stations as ‘nodes in a global order, pegging out a virtual Empire of God’. This imagery certainly applied to the order of time which connected all missions across

in The colonisation of time