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A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

Bussing, race and urban space, 1960s–80s

In 1960–62, a large number of white autochthonous parents in Southall became very concerned that the sudden influx of largely non-Anglophone Indian immigrant children in local schools would hold back their children’s education. It was primarily to placate such fears that ‘dispersal’ (or ‘bussing’) was introduced in areas such as Southall and Bradford, as well as to promote the integration of mostly Asian children. It consisted in sending busloads of immigrant children to predominantly white suburban schools, in an effort to ‘spread the burden’. This form of social engineering went on until the early 1980s. This book, by mobilising local and national archival material as well as interviews with formerly bussed pupils in the 1960s and 1970s, reveals the extent to which dispersal was a flawed policy, mostly because thousands of Asian pupils were faced with racist bullying on the playgrounds of Ealing, Bradford, etc. It also investigates the debate around dispersal and the integration of immigrant children, e.g. by analysing the way some Local Education Authorities (Birmingham, London) refused to introduce bussing. It studies the various forms that dispersal took in the dozen or so LEAs where it operated. Finally, it studies local mobilisations against dispersal by ethnic associations and individuals. It provides an analysis of debates around ‘ghetto schools’, ‘integration’, ‘separation’, ‘segregation’ where quite often the US serves as a cognitive map to make sense of the English situation.

Prisoners of the past

This book examines the impact that nostalgia has had on the Labour Party’s political development since 1951. In contrast to existing studies that have emphasised the role played by modernity, it argues that nostalgia has defined Labour’s identity and determined the party’s trajectory over time. It outlines how Labour, at both an elite and a grassroots level, has been and remains heavily influenced by a nostalgic commitment to an era of heroic male industrial working-class struggle. This commitment has hindered policy discussion, determined the form that the modernisation process has taken and shaped internal conflict and cohesion. More broadly, Labour’s emotional attachment to the past has made it difficult for the party to adjust to the socioeconomic changes that have taken place in Britain. In short, nostalgia has frequently left the party out of touch with the modern world. In this way, this book offers an assessment of Labour’s failures to adapt to the changing nature and demands of post-war Britain.

From Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry to British Romantic art

The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.

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Finding Shakespeare’s New Place

with his family. His work commitments called him to London, but probably never for very long: New Place was too large and socially significant a house, and his entire family was based there. At least, that is the picture that our archaeological investigations have led us to consider. That is why we have subtitled this book ‘An archaeological biography’: our excavations have had a palpable impact on how we

in Finding Shakespeare’s New Place
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Artefacts and disciplinary formation

the University of Cambridge, where he worked at the University Museum of Ethnology and Archaeology and edited the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. Sayce’s dedication to what he called ‘British ethnology’ – folklore or bygones, an expanding area in British museums – was far more akin to history and geography than to the natural sciences.58 He had previously been head of the department of geography at Natal, and in Manchester Sayce worked on the collections with the social anthropologist, archaeologist and Professor of Geography Herbert John Fleure.59 Acting

in Nature and culture
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Archaeology, anthropology and women in museums

infrequently had to settle for the museum as a second best, rather than as their intended outcome. j  157 J W o me n an d Muse ums, 18 50–19 1 4 Women, fieldwork and museums: the social organisation of archaeology Women’s roles within archaeology and anthropology in the nineteenth century were not static, of course, but developed in response to the emerging disciplines themselves, as well as other sociocultural factors. Compared to natural history and science, any professionalisation drive was much less explicitly geared to defeminising the disciplines, but the distinct

in Women and Museums, 1850–1914
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Archaeology, networks, and the Smithsonian Institution, 1876–79

2 Circular 316: archaeology, networks, and the Smithsonian Institution, 1876–79 James E. Snead Introduction On November 26, 1874, Chicago’s Daily Inter-Ocean ran a story featuring William Berridge, resident of the town of Pecatonica, Illinois, who had discovered an ancient burial while digging a well on his property. ‘After he had got down about ten or fifteen feet,’ the article noted, ‘his spade struck into something hard, which turned out to be a human skull.’ Berridge, it seems, took little interest in his finds, but word spread quickly ‘and the people

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology

presents an overview of the site since the removal of the 1702 house, and particularly focuses upon the archaeological projects that have taken place during the last 150 years – namely that of Halliwell-Phillipps and Dig for Shakespeare. These projects, although separated in time, were conceived with the same intention: to investigate the site of New Place in order to reveal evidence of Shakespeare

in Finding Shakespeare’s New Place
Forensic and archaeological approaches to locating the remains of Holocaust victims

D. Ofer, ‘History, memory and identity: perceptions of the Holocaust in Israel’, in U. Rebhun and C. Waxman (eds), Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2004), pp. 394–​417. 25 R. Bernbeck and S. Pollack, ‘Grabe, Wo Du Stehst!: an archaeology of perpetrators’, in Y. Hamilakis and P. Duke (eds), Archaeology and Capitalism: From Ethics to Politics (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2009), pp. 217–​31. 26 M. Schudrich, ‘Legal issues’, paper presented at the IHRA Killing Sites  –​Research and Remembrance

in Human remains in society