Jeffrey Hopes

or, as for Shaftesbury, his virtuous nature. In both cases, if happiness through proximity with God is seen as the ultimate end of human existence, and vice and enslavement to the corporeal are construed as misery, then the passions should be judged by the degree of happiness or misery they procure. Here happiness could also be defined as pleasure and misery as pain, though they might have both corporeal and spiritual dimensions. This happiness or misery could be individual or collective; indeed the two might not coincide, so that the pleasure of one individual

in Writing and constructing the self in Great Britain in the long eighteenth century
Reorientation under the National Health Service
Martin Gorsky, John Mohan and Tim Willis

establishment of the NHS. First, the debates that took place in 1946–48 are outlined, when the schemes had to decide whether or not to continue in existence and, if they were to continue, what their role ought to be. Both the attitudes of the schemes and the response by government are considered: despite Bevan’s rhetoric, how supportive was government of proposals for continuation? Second, the success of efforts by the surviving schemes to develop a market niche is traced and developments are related to socioeconomic changes in post-war Britain and to the evolution of policy

in Mutualism and health care
The Virgin in the Garden and Still Life
Alexa Alfer and Amy J. Edwards de Campos

–7). These ephemera both function nostalgically, as mnemonic touchstones of a forgotten era, and signal a deliberate focus on the material side of existence. Significantly, though, even in this most ‘thingy’ of descriptive passages, we are far from the nouveau romanesque project of ‘no ideas but in things’. For Winifred, even the teapot stand is replete with symbolic significance: all these small

in A. S. Byatt
Werewolves, wolves and wild children
Editors: Sam George and Bill Hughes

The book explores crucial questions concerning human social existence and its animal substrate, and the intersection between the human and the wolfishly bestial. The collection connects together innovative research on the cultural significance of wolves, wild children and werewolves from a variety of perspectives. We begin with the wolf itself as it has been interpreted as a cultural symbol and how it figures in contemporary debates about human existence, wilderness and nature. Alongside this, we consider eighteenth-century debates about wild children – often thought to have been raised by wolves and other animals – and their role in key questions about the origins of language and society. The collection continues with analyses of the modern werewolf and its cultural connotations in texts from nineteenth-century Gothic through early cinema to present-day television and Young Adult fiction, concluding with the transitions between animal and human in contemporary art, poetry and fashion.

Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

manifestations as detrimental to the very existence of modern Turkey. Indeed, the growth of Muslim influence in Turkey cannot be downplayed. The 1970s and the first half of the 1980s were years of economic crisis in Turkey, stemming mostly from the global energy crisis but also from internal Turkish phenomena like the huge wave of immigrants from rural areas into Turkey’s urban centers. Those years subjected Turkey to acute inflation, shortages, unemployment, enormous expenditure on energy imports, and a slowdown in the absorption of Turkish workers in European countries

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

potential returns and risks of the investment project for which funds are being lent. The existence of asymmetric information creates problems in the financial system both before a transaction is entered into, in evaluating borrowing proposals, and after, in monitoring and enforcing the loan contract. 2.2.1   Asymmetric information: adverse selection

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Dave Boothroyd

their analyses of sense and nonsense and their thinking of the relation between interiority and exteriority. The connection between Foucauldian and Deleuzian thinking is identified here on a narcoanalytic basis, and, setting out from the most marginal of drugmediated exchanges between them, I aim to show that the drug effects which circulate in culture at large (or cultural exteriority) are related to specific materialisations of individual existence (or cultural interiority), providing another specific instance of how drug effects are inscribed within the production of

in Culture on drugs
Abstract only
Andreas Antoniades

, one cannot exclude the study of institutional and ideational factors. But the great challenge is not to recognise the importance of these two sets of factors but rather to develop an analytical framework capable of studying the conditions of their co-existence and the nature of their interaction. To this end, I propose the concept of hegemonic discourse. A hegemonic discourse is conceptualised as a set of productive practices and meanings that dominate world politics and economics during particular historical periods. This book aspires to explicate the conditions of

in Producing globalisation
The myth and reality of social existence
Anthony King

Tolkien to a new and much wider audience. Jackson’s film alters some of the plot and excludes other parts; nevertheless, the film remains generally close to the novel in structure and in meaning. In this, the film has served a useful purpose in demonstrating why the novel has had such an enduring fascination for readers in the five decades since its publication. The film affirms that The Lord of the Rings is a modern myth, a fantasy which temporarily brackets the profane and mechanical experience of modern existence and introduces readers and, now, audiences to a

in Human agents and social structures
The backlash against multiculturalism
Shailja Sharma

definition, the communitarian nation (defined successively as “pagan people”, then “politically organized people” and finally “people united by common history and descent”) is the source of state sovereignty and power – i.e., it defines the ‘political identity of the citizen within a democratic The backlash against multiculturalism107 polity’ (Habermas, 1992). The republican definition, most famously recognized in Ernst Renan’s 1871 phrase, ‘the existence of the nation is … a daily plebiscite’, focuses on a nation of citizens. The two definitions – the national myth of

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France