of clergy and theologians remained unreconciled to Fianna
Fáil, and around the middle of the decade, several senior ecclesiastics endorsed the
United Ireland Party, an amalgamation of the Blueshirts, Cumann na nGaedheal
and the Centre Party.6 During the Emergency, social Catholicism, or vocationalism,
persisted as an influential form of public opinion, and conformity with the church’s
moral and social principles remained a priority for Irish Catholics.7
The government responded to the growing prominence of vocationalism by
establishing the Commission on Vocational
a place in the social, moral and legal fabric: it defines which places, occupations, social, intimate and sexual relations are proper, and which are not.
This chapter will argue that, from the turn of the twentieth century onwards,
these two links, to the bodily appearance and to the social body, were simultaneously cut off in medical practices. Sex turned inwards: it became linked
to the interior of the body (see chapter 7), and to the interior of the self.
This happened simultaneously: while medically established gonadal sex was
cut off from other, outward
and potentially temporary nature of free alliances were a serious concern for moral purists. However, in no respect
was Ben and Elizabeth’s liaison casual. Nor was it, in their eyes, immoral,
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ELIZABETH WOLSTENHOLME ELMY
as they were committed to raising a child in an atmosphere of sexual
equality, mutual fidelity and trust. Ultimately, they fought and failed to
defy the entreaties of friends (and particularly of Ursula Bright) that they
marry. And as this chapter highlights, their formal exchange of vows in
with them’. A desire was expressed to ‘co-operate heartily with every
kindred society’ working for peace, while the Journal acknowledged
the assistance the WPAA had provided to the IAPA at conferences and
meetings. It was noted in the Journal that The Olive Leaf was not
devoted exclusively to peace questions, having a much wider scope that
included the ‘moral and social welfare’ of the nation. The Peace Society’s
publication, the Herald of Peace, gave The Olive Leaf a much briefer
notice, detailing its price and publisher and remarking that it ‘contains
In the first book detailing the social and economic history of Ireland during the Second World War, Dr Bryce Evans reveals the hidden story of the Irish Emergency. If the diplomatic history of Irish neutrality is familiar, the realities of everyday life are much less so. This work provides a clear summary of Ireland’s economic survival at the time as well as an indispensable overview of every published work on Ireland during the Second World War. While useful as a textbook introducing writing about the period, the book contributes a new and enlightening take on popular material and spiritual existence as global conflict impacted the country. It compares economic and social conditions in Ireland to those of the other European neutral states: Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Portugal. It explores how the government coped with the crisis and how ordinary Irish people reacted to emergency state control of the marketplace. With their government wounded by British economic warfare, the Irish people engaged in the black market, cross-border smuggling, and popular resistance. Exploring how notions of morality intersected with state-regulated production, consumption and distribution, this study reveals a colourful history detailing exploitation, deprivation, deviance and intolerance amidst the state’s shaky survival. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, this book provides a slice of real life during a pivotal episode in Irish and world history. It will be essential reading to the informed general reader, students, and academics alike.
The struggle in projects, ideas and symbols between the strongest Communist Party in the West and an anti-Communist and pro-Western government coalition was the most peculiar founding element of the Italian democratic political system after the Second World War. Until now, most historians have focused their attention on political parties as the only players in the competition for the making of political orientations and civic identities in Italian public opinion. Others have considered Italian political struggle in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of the polarisation between Communism and organised Catholicism, due to the undoubted importance of the Church in Italian culture and social relations. This book enlarges the view, looking at new aspects and players of the anti-Communist ‘front’. It takes into account the role of cultural associations, newspapers and the popular press in the selection and diffusion of critical judgements and images of Communism, highlighting a dimension that explains the force of anti-Communist opinions in Italy after 1989 and the crisis of traditional parties. The author also places the case of Italian Cold War anti-Communism in an international context for the first time.
This book is about the ways in which the Holocaust has been rendered and represented as History. From court-rooms to history books, efforts to grapple with and award meaning to the genocide of the Jews, in historical terms, have been a consistent feature of post-war intellectual culture and it is these representations that are the subject of the book. The book confronts the first attempts to form historical narratives of the murder of the European Jews per se. It finds a discourse that is as much concerned with the moral politics of judgement in the post-war world as it is with the Shoah. The book also breaks the narrative of the development of the history of the perpetrators. It argues that once it had been created by historians, others began to ask how institutions and individuals external to Nazi-occupied Europe had responded to the Holocaust. Again a divided historiography is uncovered, and again the divisions are as much concerned with what does and does not constitute legitimate historical enquiry as with the issues of responses to the Holocaust themselves. The book further deals with the victims and survivors - who were often excluded from more general Holocaust narratives. An analysis of work on the testimonies of surviving victims finds that debates about how best to use this material are in essence a discourse concerned with the moral possibilities of history-writing.
Exempla, the stories with which preachers enlivened their sermons and impressed salutary moral lessons on their hearers, have long been appreciated as a source of key importance for medieval history. They played an important part in popular preaching and yet, for all the work being published on preaching and on the mendicant orders more generally, little of the abundant primary material is available in English translation. This book presents translation material from two collections of exempla assembled in the British Isles in the last quarter of the thirteenth century. One, the Liber Exemplorum (LE), was compiled by an English Franciscan working in Ireland. The other, probably the work of an English Dominican based in Cambridge (DC), is represented by fifty-two stories, about one-sixth of the total. These two collections are important because they are among the earliest to survive from the British Isles. Their short, pithy narratives are not limited to matters of Church doctrine and practice, but touch on a wide range of more mundane matters and provide vivid snapshots of medieval life in the broadest sense. The first part of the collection is chiefly devoted to Christ and the Virgin, the Mass and the saving power of the Cross. The second part has exempla on a wide variety of doctrinal, moral and other topics. These include the vices, the virtues, the sacraments and church practice, and the sins and other failings thought to beset particular professions or groups.
This book examines early modern English notions of bodily difference. Tracing how
the English valued somatic contrasts, both amongst themselves and, as they
ventured into and through the Atlantic, among non-Europeans, this book
demonstrates that individuals’ distinctive features were thought to be innate,
even as discrete populations were also believed to have fleshly characteristics
in common – whether similarities in skin-tone, facial profile, hair colour, or
demeanour. According to much scholarship, bodies thought to be constituted from
the same four elemental fluids as Adam and Eve’s – the phlegmatic, sanguine,
choleric, and melancholic humours – were not the stuff of visceral inequality.
On the contrary, this book finds that people routinely judged and were judged on
sight; according to the ostensible balance, or complexion, of their humours.
Belief in monogenesis and Christian universalism notwithstanding, people could
be sorted on the basis of their looks, and assumptions made about their
ancestry, present condition, and future behaviour. Complexions vouched for
distinctions in social status, physical cum moral fitness, national allegiance,
and religious affiliation. Humoralism inflected both social politics and
international relations. If looking at people racially is to group them
according to perceived physical contrasts – in the belief these contrasts mark
innate, inherited variations in physical ability, mental agility, or moral
aptitude – which simultaneously justify their prejudicial treatment relative to
one’s own group, then this book demonstrates how and why racism was fitfully
part of early modern English culture.
Ian Ramsey, theology and
‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics
During the 1960s and 1970s Anglican theologians increasingly
endorsed ‘trans-disciplinary’ discussion of new procedures such as
IVF in societies and journals dedicated to medical ethics.1 Although
theological engagement with medical ethics was by no means new,
it increased from the 1960s thanks to a decline in religious belief.
Figures such as Ian Ramsey, an Oxford theologian and later Bishop
of Durham, endorsed greater engagement with social and moral
issues to maintain the Church’s relevance in