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filigrane’ (‘a film we could call Marxist, in minor mode or implic- 46 andré téchiné itly’) (Jousse 1991). The model here is of course Balzac, for long held in high regard by Marxist critics for his dissection of the emerging early nineteenth-century capitalist world in the novels of the comédie humaine, and beyond that the tradition of the Bildungsroman, or novel of education. Unlike the stable communities of the traditional past, modernity requires ‘an uncertain exploration of social space’ (Moretti 1987: 4) through narratives of mobility, unexpected hopes

in André Téchiné
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Lamenting Livingstone

he (and it is almost always a he) successfully surmounts. Franco Moretti clarifies the nature of such challenges: ‘lions, heat, vegetation, elephants, flies, rain, illness and natives. All mixed up, and at bottom all interchangeable in their function as obstacles.’ 39 Many of the death poems certainly created a portrait of environmental resistance in which Livingstone

in Livingstone’s ‘Lives’
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Religion, folklore, Shakespeare
E.J. Clery and Robert Miles

financial corruption. In doing so, it incidentally displaces the opposition of credulity and scepticism with a materialist interpretation of the case reminiscent of Franco Moretti’s well-known Marxist reading of Dracula (Moretti, 1983, pp. 83–108). The piece could be regarded simply as an elaborate joke, but the reading of superstitious fictions as allegories of political oppression remained an option for

in Gothic documents
Open Access (free)
Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction

growing awareness of cultural interconnectedness. Far from the marginal, derivative, sub-literary fictions of traditional scholarly opinion, Roche's gothic romances, like those of her fellow Irish Minerva Press authors, invite new attention. Not only do they constitute what we might call, in Moretti-inspired terms, the canon of the market or the canon of the read, they are also positioned centrally in the development of nineteenth-century cultural nationalisms and a new transnationalism powered by print. 148 Notes

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Alice Munro and Lives of Girls and Women

gendered terms is illuminating. Franco Moretti puts the ‘classic’ Bildungsroman in the context of everyday life and sees as one of its tasks ‘to show how pleasing life can be in what Goethe called “the small world”‘ ( 1987 , 36). Significantly, as in Moretti’s whole argument, this works well for the male (artist) hero who can always leave this small world for the larger one with

in Gothic Forms of Feminine Fictions
Open Access (free)
Mother–daughter relations in Paule Constant’s fiction

, Klein’s ‘phantasy’ is the process of psychical interaction between inner and outer world.  For a sensitive analysis of the place of remembering in mourning drawing on Barthes’s La Chambre claire, see Michael Worton, ‘Thinking through photography, remembering to love the past’, in Monique Streiff-Moretti, Mireille Revol Cappelleti and Odile Martinez (eds), Il senso del nonsenso: scritti in memoria di Lynn Salkin Sbiroli (Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, ), pp. –.  For such connections between mother–daughter relations, women’s identities and women

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Italian historians on the Spanish soldiers

historiography and literature, see Yolanda Rodríguez Pérez, The Dutch Revolt through Spanish Eyes. Self and Other in Historical and Literary Texts of Golden Age Spain (c.1548–1673) (Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang, 2008).   7 S. Moretti, ‘La trattatistica italiana e la guerra. Il conflitto tra la Spagna e le Fiandre (1566– 1609)’, Annali dell’Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento, 20 (1994), 129–64; see also my article: Cees Reijner, ‘Il mito dell’Olanda. Politiek en geschiedschrijving in vroegmodern Italië’, Incontri, 30:2 (2015), 41–55.   8 Hispano-­Habsburg troops were

in Early modern war narratives and the Revolt in the Low Countries
Joyce and the Freudian Bildungsroman

formal innovations of Ulysses and Finnegan’s Wake. As Franco Moretti has shown, the relationship between the individual and modern society produced in the realist Bildungsroman was one governed by the logic of compromise and exchange, with happiness and freedom as the currency of this symbolic economy.26 In the Joycean Bildungsroman, this governing logic has been replaced by the Oedipal logic of separation and identification. The plot in Portrait is constructed out of Stephen’s struggle to forge and construct his own identity in opposition to the various social and

in Impure thoughts

, Peter, was a mapmaker and surveyor) and an imperial one (the generational transition from colonial expansion to, with Thomas, the settling of the continent by an independent United States). Both Jeffersons, though, embody the Enlightenment imperative to self-regulate, to overwrite the landscape with what Franco Moretti has described as ‘the impersonal and automatic mechanisms of the market economy’.30 In Mason & Dixon this imperial geography is competing with an already crowded terrain, for the land is inscribed with earlier – and differently configured – markings

in Thomas Pynchon
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Reformed indifferently

quite the politic imposture, then, based on equal disbelief in all religions, that Chloe Preedy has highlighted in Christopher Marlowe.16 For Thomas J. Moretti finds that in The White Devil John Webster’s exposure of the inauthenticity of every form of faith does ‘ironic service’ (cf. p. 127) to interdenominational rapprochement, as a type of negative ecumenicism that leaves playgoers desiring to pretend their common Christianity. And even in Macbeth James R. Macdonald identifies an eschatological ambivalence, compounded by Thomas Middleton’s co

in Forms of faith