cohere as an “organic” process with a “human
face” which used money responsibly and sensibly’
(Moretti, 1988 ; Gelder, 1994 : 19). Here, Dracula is represented as a selfish and
despotic monopolist, remorselessly and greedily accumulating capital
– not unlike the reckless ‘banksters’ of late
who are publically condemned for adopting a regressive economic
. Judith Walkowitz suggests that London had been understood as a ‘bifurcated city’, east and west culturally and economically opposed: labour and capital, poverty and leisure, criminal and bourgeois, alien and nation. Franco Moretti, in his Atlas of the European Novel 1800–1900 (1998), makes a similar argument about London’s duality, which he diagnoses in Dickens’s Oliver Twist :
Two half-Londons, that do not add up to a whole … It is Dickens’ great wager: to unify the two halves of the city. And his pathbreaking discovery: once the two
Literature , pp. 196, 198.
Thomas J. Moretti, by contrast, argues that The Virgin Martyr proposes a via media of religious tolerance in parallel to James I's attempts for reconciliation and moderation in religious policy (‘ Via Media Theatricality and Religious Fantasy in Thomas Dekker and Philip Massinger's The Virgin Martyr ’, Renaissance Drama 42:2 , pp. 243
as formal exploration of an extended Bildungsroman around
‘the conflict between the ideal of self-determination
and the equally imperious demands of socialisation ’
(Moretti 1987 , 15).
However, Arachne’s travels do not end in the ‘harmonious
solution’ expected of that genre (Moretti 1987 , 15), namely
the ‘conclusive synthesis
‘Of magic look and meaning’: themes concerning the cultural chess-player
and moralities. An epilogue considers the chess-player from an early twentyfirst-century perspective.
1 D. Martin, Curious Visions of Modernity: Enchantment, Magic, and the Sacred (Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press, 2011), p. xiv.
2 Ibid., p. xv.
3 F. Moretti, Graphs, Maps and Trees: Abstract Models for Literary History (London: Verso,
2007), p. 4.
4 P. Metzner, Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris During the
Age of Revolution (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998), p. 1.
5 Oxford English Dictionary
ﬁligrane’ (‘a ﬁlm we could call Marxist, in minor mode or implic-
itly’) (Jousse 1991). The model here is of course Balzac, for long held
in high regard by Marxist critics for his dissection of the emerging
early nineteenth-century capitalist world in the novels of the comédie
humaine, and beyond that the tradition of the Bildungsroman, or novel
of education. Unlike the stable communities of the traditional past,
modernity requires ‘an uncertain exploration of social space’ (Moretti
1987: 4) through narratives of mobility, unexpected hopes
it is almost always a he) successfully surmounts. Franco Moretti
clarifies the nature of such challenges: ‘lions, heat,
vegetation, elephants, flies, rain, illness and natives. All mixed up,
and at bottom all interchangeable in their function as
Many of the death poems certainly created a portrait of environmental
resistance in which Livingstone
financial corruption. In
doing so, it incidentally displaces the opposition of credulity and
scepticism with a materialist interpretation of the case reminiscent of
Franco Moretti’s well-known Marxist reading of Dracula
(Moretti, 1983, pp. 83–108). The piece could be regarded simply as
an elaborate joke, but the reading of superstitious fictions as
allegories of political oppression remained an option for
Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction
growing awareness of cultural interconnectedness. Far from the marginal, derivative, sub-literary fictions of traditional scholarly opinion, Roche's gothic romances, like those of her fellow Irish Minerva Press authors, invite new attention. Not only do they constitute what we might call, in Moretti-inspired terms, the canon of the market or the canon of the read, they are also positioned centrally in the development of nineteenth-century cultural nationalisms and a new transnationalism powered by print. 148
gendered terms is illuminating. Franco Moretti puts
the ‘classic’ Bildungsroman in the context of
everyday life and sees as one of its tasks ‘to show how
pleasing life can be in what Goethe called “the small
world”‘ ( 1987 , 36). Significantly, as in Moretti’s whole
argument, this works well for the male (artist) hero who can always
leave this small world for the larger one with