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, where the real William Wallace (1270–1305) fought and won.1 Scotland exists, and this adds much to the Scottish dreamscape’s credibility and success. The world of Scottish play-­acting does not necessarily connect with Scotland. Many of the most dedicated Scots of Europe (and, for that matter, of North America and Australasia) have never visited Scotland. Some cannot afford the journey, others sense that modern Scotland would be of little relevance to their performances as Highland warriors. Indeed, when play-­actors do travel to Scotland, they sometimes fail to find

in Warrior dreams
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Returned migrants and the Canada Club

, approximately half were Scots, or had Scottish ancestry. Many of those men had close connections with Montreal or Quebec commercial interests, set up as a consequence of earlier fur trading activities. Among these, four members of the Gillespie family, two McGillivrays, William and Simon McTavish, and Alexander Mackenzie were most notable. 15 Even the most influential British member, Edward Ellice, claimed Scottish ancestry, and was a member of a merchant company that had been active in the North American fur trade since the mid-1760s. 16

in Emigrant homecomings
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The same-sex unions revolution, its past and future

revolution since 1989, I use the final two sections of the chapter to speculate about its future. First, I examine the increasing international focus on opening marriage to same-sex couples and explore the extent to which the international SSU norm is being transformed into one that defines marriage as the only appropriate form of same-sex relationship recognition. Second, I briefly examine the spread of the SSU norm outside of North America and Western Europe and highlight both the similarities and differences of the policy discourses that have resulted from the

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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Recent years have seen an upsurge of interest in the study of migration, emigration and immigration, at both scholarly and popular levels. Throughout Europe, North America and the Antipodes, the enduring popularity of diaspora studies is reflected in numerous research projects and publications, as well as teaching, media and museum coverage, cultural tourism and the promotional and co-ordinating work of bodies such as the Association of European Migration Institutions. 1 But despite all this activity one crucial theme

in Emigrant homecomings
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Brasilidade and the rise of the music documentary

on brasilidade , race and even on the value of Brazilian music is constructed in Coração vagabundo , a mixture of biopic and concert movie that charts Caetano Veloso’s 2003 tour of Brazil, North America and Japan. Veloso is known in Brazil for continuously defying his audience’s expectations by exploring new musical paths, and this aspect of his work is well captured in this film. It opens with a flashback

in Screening songs in Hispanic and Lusophone cinema
The Puritan influence on American Gothic nature

North American deforestation in the late twentieth century, it very much is possible to remain lost. Despite their reliance on maps, a compass, backpacking gear and their non-stop filming, they cannot escape; and, ultimately, they are swallowed up by the forest, never to be found again. Environmental concerns were probably far from the directors’ minds when they filmed The Blair Witch Project

in Ecogothic
Exploring long-distance loyalist networks in the 1880s

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:38 Page 36 2 ‘Two Irelands beyond the sea’: exploring long-distance loyalist networks in the 1880s William Jenkins As obvious as it may seem to state that networks exist at different scales from the local to the transnational and global, it is the relations and intersections between such networks, the way that they connect places, and the consequences that result from their activity that are of interest here. These consequences are many, but are treated in this chapter in the context of Irish emigration to North America and

in Migrations
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An American independent film made by Mexicans

companies, the North American location, with most of the film shot and set in Memphis, and the use of (American) English. In addition, although the film relies on a multinational cast, with the American Sean Penn, the Australian Naomi Watts, the Puerto Rican-born Benicio del Toro, the British Eddie Marsan, and the Anglo-French actress Charlotte Gainsbourg, they are all actors who have largely formed their careers in the USA (with the exception of Gainsbourg, whose casting helps place the film within the art cinema end of independent filmmaking). The film’s themes

in The three amigos

stories. It is made by a transnational director, and features transnational stars (Brad Pitt, Cate Blanchett, and Gael García Bernal).8 It can also be seen as a film that fits within the concept of a cinema of globalisation, as explained above. Babel takes some of the most pressing contemporary social issues in its attempt to make a film about ‘the world’; nevertheless, as befitting a Hollywood world cinema text, it privileges a North American point of view, even when it appears not to. While the film has a focus on non-Western cultures, the shadow of US socio

in The three amigos
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problems deflected Henry VIII’s natural tendency toward expansionism, but by 1540, near the end of his reign, he was prepared for further English aggrandizement. By 1640, the course of English overseas colonization was set. This first century of tentative and uncoordinated efforts would see the English becoming masters of a territorial and commercial empire that stretched from a united British archipelago to possessions in North America, the Caribbean, and even India. 3 This chapter considers the context of Elizabethan settlement in Ireland by

in Castles and Colonists